Sunday, December 30, 2007

A Little Back-Story on The Rwandan G and Karenzi Karake or KK (pron: Ca-Ca), Dr. Bernie Kouchner's man in Darfur--from our new friends at Radio Katwe

A Little Back-Story on The Rwandan G and Karenzi Karake or KK (pron: Ca-Ca), Dr. Bernie Kouchner's man in Darfur--from our new friends at Radio Katwe

[The evidence against the consensus genocide mythology mounts. But in this election season, the forces of delusional revision continue to batter all expressions of the will of the great majority with a sectarian nightmare vision of victimized minorities, tortured unto extermination, struggling for justice (and just compensations, fo sho) against all odds. Democracy for the few is being paid for with the blood of the many.

Since 53% of the French voting public were cajoled and/or terrorized into acting against their own interests by elevating to the Elysée Palace the sayan (home-grown sleeper agent of Israeli military intelligence--see Le Figaro or and self-proclaimed Fascist (sampling JFK's 'ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country', when pronouned by someone whose family owns the country, is a pure Fascist spiel), Nick 'the geek' Sarkozy, all pretension to democratic humanism in this country has been abandoned. France now is all about collaboration all the time.

But after the first round of the French elections produced the two-candidate run-off between the so-called Socialist, Royale (not to say that I wouldn't like to hurt the comrade a little), and the Cagney-esque (i.e., Jimmy, not '-and Lacey') neo-con(nard), Sarkozy (guy's so short his wife left him 'cause he wouldn't to go up on her), the only thing that even remotely recommended a vote for the miserable munchkin mouthpiece for the MEDEF (the association of France's corporate owners on whose board of directors sits Sarkozy's brother), was that it might keep the unspeakably craven and cadaverously handsome humanitarianoid, Dr Bernie Kouchner, out of the government. But like all truly 'democratic elections', France's was impossible to predict--though the major media called the final outcome pretty much on the nose right after the first round. In 'undemocratic elections', like those recently held in (a priori) 'undemocratic Russia'--and in which I had the highly 'undemocratic privilege and pleasure' to take a small role as an 'independent' election observer (and which, as with all my roles, I played balls to the wall)--even when the party in power has an 80% approval rating, is guaranteed a minimum 60+% voter turn-out, and has absolutely no need to coerce or trick or terrorize its constituency, legions of 'professional election monitors' (aka 'election tourists')--those who are actually able to find their way to attending the events--will decry thousands of violations of election protocols without ever citing a single incident--or explaining why a party commanding such popular support as does United Russia would have to resort to low-down dirty tricks.

But France, with its new Foreign Minister, Doctor K, has recently demonstrated some of the expected results of just this sort of democratic treachery. By turning its back on, or even apologizing for the Bruguière Report, an investigation led by French anti-terrorist judge, Jean-Louis Bruguière (search the English translation on this blog), into the murders of three French nationals, the crew of the Falcon 50 executive jet, on which the presidents of Rwanda, Juvenal Habyarimana, and Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, and their entourages, were flying home from a peace conference in Dar es Salam, Tanzania, on 6 April 1994, when it was shot down on its approach to the Kigali airport by two SAM missiles fired by members of the 'rebel' RPF, aided and abetted by their US and Belgian advisors, on the order of current Rwandan President and RPF leader Paul Kagame--which judicial finding called for the arrests of nine RPF principals in this terrorist plot, and the charging Kagame before the ICC--France has bent itself buns-heaven-ward before the throbbing and suppurating member of Western Imperialism and literally begged to be further, harder and more deeply sodomized by the US/UK and Israel, and without the slightest blush of humiliation at so eagerly accepting the role of genocidaire, bestowed on them by the mass-murderers themselves, in return for their righteous defense of the struggling Rwandan revolution, and demonstrating their abject demoralization by naming one of chief and long-time participants in the campaign of mass murder that continues today thoughout Central Africa, Karenzi Karake, to head the African Union 'peacekeeping mission' in Dr Bernie's very own pet genocide in Darfur.

You know, there are collaborators (like the commoner Bill Clinton who served his 'betters' by destroying the American welfare system, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Rwanda, Russia, etc.,) and then there are collaborators (the Vichy functionary, Francois Mitterand, who yanked one of his Nazi colleagues, Klaus Barbie, out of Bolivia and boxed him on charges of carrying out the very orders he [Mitterand] and his boss, Gen Petain, had set forth)--but nobody does it better (or more often) than the French. Here now's a little background--not just of Dr K's nominee as Africa's Warrior for Peace, KK (yeah, that's exactly what the smell is!)--but on the reality of just who the real genocidaire are, were, have always been. And with this article you will be able to add the Luwero Triangle to the list of places where Man's inhumanity to Man has found most-bloody expression. --mc]


More on Karenzi Karake, the RPF role in 1994 Rwandan genocide
Last updated : 12 Oct 2007, Kampala

A source in Kigali calling himself a freedom fighter has written to us in response to Mr. Muhindo in Canada. We bring you his letter and we add our comments below his letter:


I would like to comment on Mr. Muhindo's false info on major general Karake Karenzi (KK) the new AU deputy commander in Darfur.

Mr. Muhindo needs to understand that he does not have a clue on the Rwandan Genocide.

KK was an RPA afande (officer) in 1994 and well known to us who saw him and saw his devil side. Yes he killed not the kind of death anyone would want to die because these individuals were competing for favors and recognition in Kagame's eyes or else they would face the same sentence Rwigyema received for using his common sense.

Yes KK was present and did take part in the killings at Kibeho. He is a ruthless animal who deserves to be hanged. Yes the RPF government found him guilty and he did get a sentence of house arrest for a few months and a slap on the wrist.

We all know that Kagame holds the guilt of killing RPF officers and we know that he wanted to be in power at all costs. Be it sacrificing his fellow Tutsi people. Yes there were some Hutu extremists who took part in the 1994 massive massacre and these did not realize that they were being ordered by their leaders who happened to be Tutsi and these were suicide agents who sacrificed themselves for Kagame.

To mention a few examples, Robert Kajuga was the head of the interahamwe countrywide. He is 100% Tutsi and a cousin to Kagame's wife Jeanette. Gaston Karangwa is another Tutsi interahamwe and as a matter of fact he killed more Tutsi than anybody.

What happened to these people? They were killed by RPF because their mission was over. So the genocide is so complicated and people need to find the truth. Anyone with common sense would tell you that no one will ever wake up in the morning and decides to kill his/her neighbors just because they belong to this or that tribe.

Even the animals that we consider to be dumber than us don't do that unless they are provoked in some way. Machetes crossed from Uganda to Rwanda, RPF agents were everywhere with orders of killing without mercy, and KK was amongst them.

So let us get the truth and seek justice and take those killers were they belong, "hell".

From a freedom fighter.


Thank you freedom fighter for writing to Radio Katwe. Many Rwandese today would find it too hard to believe that their family members and loved ones were killed by the RPA by orders of Kagame so that the Hutu could be blamed.

If you want to know what happened in the 1994 genocide and who orchestrated it, you should first of all go to Uganda and investigate the 1981-84 massacres in Luwero Triangle and who carried them out.

Innocent people are killed in war by both sides. It is a sad fact but don't stop there. Begin asking about other mass murders that had nothing to do with specific clashes between NRA and former Uganda army UNLA.

You should find out what role Kagame played in Luwero in the killer squad called the "Black Bombers". You should ask former NRA fighters what the Black Bombers did. You should ask NRA veterans how the Bombers did what they did and what weapons they used and what were their methods. We strongly urge Ugandans to find former NRA fighters and ask them confidentially what this secret group was all about.

You should ask how President Milton Obote (RIP) ended up being blamed for killing 300,000 people in Luwero.

When you have found out how innocent peasants in Luwero were massacred by the NRA under the command of Yoweri Museveni with officers like Paul Kagame, then you will have the data to help you compare Luwero and Rwanda in 1994.

If you are wondering how Kagame and the RPF could kill their fellow Tutsi after going back to Rwanda, you should look for Banyarwanda from Uganda who are survivors or lost loved ones in Luwero Triangle.

You should ask them how their loved ones were killed. They will tell you that Obote's army , (because that is how they were dressed, in UNLA uniforms of Obote's army) would come at night and kill their loved ones. They might also tell you a small detail which you ought to find interesting, that these "UNLA" soldiers, who were supposed to be "Northerners", were speaking Kiswahili with a Kinyarwanda accent. As you know, the RPF was started and led by Rwandese officers who defected from NRA, and the NRA itself took part in that war. Now begin connecting dots to understand the untold story of RPA/RPF in the 1994 Rwanda genocide.

You should also ask what Lt. Colonel Reuben Ikondere of Museveni's NRA army was doing in Rwanda when the genocide started. You should ask why the NRA soldiers under the command of Ikondere were being confused as "Hutu" troops by the Rwandese civilians. So ordinary Rwandese see Ugandan soldiers under a Ugandan commander, and think that they are "Hutu". Given the circumstances this happened, What does that tell you?

You should also ask about the role of Lt. Col. Jackson Rwahama (by the way, he is Kagame's cousin). You should ask about the red Toyota Hilux pickup he drove into Rwanda in early 1994. What was he carrying?

Rwahama should tell you or the world about the Tata lorry which came from Uganda loaded full of brand new machetes or pangas. Rwahama should be in a position to tell us why he received that Tata truck at the Uganda-Rwanda border.

Rwahama should also tell the world if he knew that the Tata was full of machetes and if he knew, why he escorted the truck to the RPA's headquarters at Mulindi. He should confirm to his fellow Tutsis and all Rwandese if it is not true that the machetes were wrapped in black polythene paper.

Kagame and Rwahama and other top RPA officers should tell the world why they lied to the junior RPA troops and boys at Mulindi that the machetes were to be used to clear the grass and bush around the camp.

The RPA boys wondered why the RPA would need a whole truck of brand new machetes just to clear tall grass and shrubs around the camp.

The director of the RPA intelligence at that time Col. Kayumba Nyamwasa should explain to Rwandese and to the world what answers he gave the inquisitive boys in the RPA camp headquarters at Mulindi when they asked him why they needed a whole truck full of pangas to clear a bush which was not too thick in the first place.

If Kagame can answer these questions to your satisfaction, then we shall agree that the 1994 genocide in Rwanda was not organized and orchestrated by the Kagame-led RPF in the same way the Kagame-led squads in the Museveni-led NRA orchestrated the massacres of innocent civilians in Luwero.

If you are a Rwandese and up to now you have been believing that only Habyarimana's Hutu interahamwe killed your loved ones and relatives, you should start asking the questions that we are putting to Kagame and Rwahama and the other senior RPA officers here.

You saw how they responded with distortions, evasions and outright lies when Karenzi Karake was named by UDF. But if Kagame and his Generals can answer these questions fully, without hiding anything, then we shall officially accept that the RPF did not mastermind the Luwero Triangle massacres and the 1994 Rwandan genocide.

Kagame, MASTER GENOCIDAIRE -- by Guillaume Murere, Ph.D.

Kagame, MASTER GENOCIDAIRE -- by Guillaume Murere, Ph.D.

[One just can't say enough about General Kagame--who now is lobbying to get his country, Rwanda, into the British Commonwealth. From the Pré Carré (as Francophone Central Africa was called) to the Queen's Back Nine in just a dozen years--and nearly as many million slaughtered souls. More on Pilate's predations when CM/P's back from the Russian elections. --mc]


Paul Kagame, the Mastermind of the Genocide of Interior Tutsis.

By Guillaume Murere, Ph.D., Gatineau-Québec, Canada

‘Shake Hands with the Devil’, a film about the Rwandan Genocide featuring Canadian Senator Roméo Dallaire, has revived debate on the subject. This is perfectly normal because, 13 years after the event, this gruesome crime is still unresolved.

Initially, the media imposed the version that the Rwandan Genocide was planned and carried out only by Hutu. But against all odds, after spending more than a billion dollars (U.S.) and employing the intelligence services of the United States, England, Canada, Belgium and Israel, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), has yet to find any physical evidence for their thesis of a central planning of the genocide.

This result was quite predictable from the outset. In fact, intelligence gathering was and still is Paul Kagame’s greatest strength. His agents had infiltrated all spheres of Rwandan society even before October 1990. So, if evidence of planning the Rwandan Genocide by Hutus ever existed, Kagame would have made it available to the ICTR immediately, and, thus, would have definitively silenced skeptics.

Despite this void, all the experts remain certain: the killings in 1994 were so systematic that they must have been pre-planned. Then, one must ask, who was the planner? Who was the mastermind? Since investigations of the Rwandan Government’s part have (so far) failed to find any evidence of pre-planning by Hutus, would it not be logical to investigate the other warring side, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)?

Here are some observations:

1. Kagame fanned hatred against those deemed Tutsi by committing systematic massacres against the predominantly Hutu population. In 2001, in an open letter to Kagame, Alphonse Furuma, a former RPF officer, confirmed the deliberate nature of the massacres in these terms:

"From the time the Arusha Peace Agreement was being negotiated until as late as 1996, you (Kagame) carried out a deliberate policy of using all means possible to reduce the Hutu population in the Umutara, Kibungo, and Bugesera regions."

The crimes of Kagame’s army are documented in great detail by Lieutenant Abdul Ruzibiza, another former member of the RPF. As it would happen in other countries in similar circumstances, these systematic massacres by Kagame’s men, reputed Tutsi, against the population, mostly Hutu, stirred up hatred against those deemed Tutsis and weakened the moderate political forces which were dominant at the beginning of the war (October 1990-February 1993). The fact that people reputed to be Tutsis committed systematic massacres against other population groups is, by any standard, the worst form of hate propaganda against those deemed Tutsi. Kagame used the worst possible means of terrorism to destroy the social peace between Rwandan ethnic groups that existed under Habyarimana’s regime, a period of 17 years during which there was no ethnic conflict.

2. Kagame destroyed the coalition between the interior opposition parties and the RPF, which prevented the war from escalating into an ethnic-based conflict. In 1992, the major interior opposition parties, the MDR (predominantly Hutu), the PL (predominantly Tutsi) and the PSD formed a political coalition with the RPF (predominantly Tutsi). With that coalition, the conflict was formally a political battle for power sharing and political representation. The negotiations already underway in Arusha, Tanzania, aroused great hopes for peace among Rwandans. Unfortunately, political analysts failed to consider one very important point: the success of the negotiations would have prevented Kagame from obtaining absolute personal power. Kagame sought any pretext to destroy the coalition and thus thwart the peace negotiations.

On 08 February 1993, claiming Bagogwe (a sub-group of Tutsi) had been massacred by Rwandan government forces; Kagame ordered a massive attack in the Ruhengeri Prefect. The death toll was very high: over 40,000 Hutu civilians were massacred. Consequently, the pressure on interior opposition parties at the Arusha negotiations became untenable. It was not justifiable to be in a coalition with a party that massacred innocent civilians en masse in broad daylight. The coalition of interior opposition parties with the RPF shattered. In addition, each political party split into two factions: one called "Hutu Power,” a pro-Hutu, and anti-RPF faction, while the other was pro-RPF and anti-MRND. Confrontation on an ethnic basis was now difficult to avoid and the slightest spark could now start the dreaded ethnic-based war.

3. In his testimony (, Ruzibiza tells that long before 1994 Kagame had instructed his men who infiltrated within Rwanda, particularly within the Interahamwe (a militia that participated in the genocide of interior Tutsis), to massacre interior Tutsis in such a way that the crimes could be attributed to the government forces and militias. Here are, according to Ruzibiza, some on the list of those Kagame had instructed his men to exterminate:

“Every interior Tutsi (sacrificing interior Tutsi); intellectual Tutsi deemed to oppose RPF ideology, for example ‘Lando’; and regrouped Tutsis living in remote places.”

In the same testimony, Ruzibiza reveals, “It was a common strategy of Kagame to order the assassination of opposition politicians or Tutsi personalities in order justify the resumption of hostilities on the ground that that the government was violating human rights." ‘Lando’ was the nickname of Landoald Ndasingwa, an intellectual Tutsi, founder, and leader of the PL political party. He was married to a Canadian lady named Hélène Pinski. The couple and their two children, Malaika and Patrick, were massacred very early on 07 April 1994. Contrary to popular belief, the testimony of Ruzibiza and many other facts suggest that Ndasingwa and Pinski were massacred by agents of Kagame who wanted to eliminate any legitimate political opposition to the RPF after the war was over.

4. On April 06, 1994, the plane transporting President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down by a missile. As could be expected, this terrorist act sparked a human tragedy of unthinkable proportion: the Rwandan Genocide. The investigation of French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguière concluded that this terrorist crime was commissioned by Paul Kagame. This terrorist assassination was carried out despite the fact that in February 1994, following the assassination of Felicien Gatabazi (leader of the PSD party) and Martin Bucyana (leader of the CDR party), President Habyarimana had demonstrated that he still held ultimate authority and was still capable of maintaining law and order in his country by bringing a halt to the social unrest caused by these murders. Andre Guichaoua, a professor at the University of Paris, agrees that these assassinations were ordered by Kagame.

5. In April 1994, while the interior Tutsis were being massacred, Kagame and his men opposed the intervention of international forces. Charles Muligande, the current Rwandan Minister of Foreign Affairs, was part of the delegation that was sent to the United States to seek support from Washington for this opposition. Ruzibiza revealed in his testimony that during the genocide, Kagame personally ordered his troops to not rescue interior Tutsi from militias.

In 1999, in his open letter to Paul Kagame, Jean-Pierre Mugabe, an ex-intelligence agent of the RPF, denounced the assassination, by Kagame’s troops, of young Tutsi who joined the RPF from Rwanda and Burundi. Ironically, those young Tutsi joined the RPF with the goal of coming back to Rwanda by force to defend their parents. All these actions seem coherent: Kagame could not instruct his infiltrators within the Interahamwe to activate the massacre of interior Tutsis while allowing these young Tutsi to take more responsibility in his army and, in the end, permit his regular troops to come to the aid of the same interior Tutsi his infiltrators, in alliance with the Interahamwe, were killing.

6. Among the founders of the Interahamwe are Anastase Gasana (now exiled in the United States), rewarded with the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs in Kagame’s regime and Desiré Murenzi, who was placed at the head of a major oil company. Also troubling is the fact that Robert Kajuga, the Tutsi President of the Interahamwe, is the brother of a Rwandan businessman named Husi (killed during the Rwandan Genocide), who, according to several sources, has funded the scholarship of Janet Nyiramongi, Paul Kagame’s wife. These indications point to the fact that the militia Interahamwe was, from beginning to end, manipulated by Kagame’s secret services.

These previous observations demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that Paul Kagame has done everything possible to ensure that interior Tutsis were exterminated. Therefore, it has to be concluded, in the words of Kagame himself in his speech delivered on the 10th anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide, that, ‘Indeed the Rwandan Genocide was premeditated, calculated and cold blooded.’ However, in light of these facts, we must now add that the mastermind of the genocide of the Rwandan interior Tutsis is Kagame himself. That is the sad and terrible reality the international community, who gave a carte blanche to Kagame, has (so far) refused to confront.

Yet, if the above cited criminal acts would had been committed by Rwandans deemed Hutu, they would have been condemned by the whole world for committing the crime of genocide against Tutsis. Instead, Kagame, because he is reputed Tutsi, has a red carpet rolled out for him across Europe and in America. This differential treatment of Rwandans, based on ethnicity, is sheer racism in flagrant contradiction to the democratic values of our time.

Guillaume Murere Ph. D.
Gatineau, Québec, Canada.
November 2007.

History is Lies: POLITICAL PRISONERS OF THE UN -- by ICTR Accused and Convicted

History is Lies: POLITICAL PRISONERS OF THE UN -- by ICTR Accused and Convicted

[This just in from Chris Black. It speaks volumes to the techniques the Waste Culture uses to destroy nations that will not satisfy its morbid cravings. CM/P will be in Moscow for the weekend of December 1-2 to observe the parliamentary elections in Russia. The EU and OSCE have refused (most likely on orders from the US State Dept) to send voting monitors for fear of having to point out just how much Putin's administration has begun to bring this great country out of the neo-liberal dance of death that Bush, Clinton and Yeltsin sent it twirling into--and thereby showing just how much real democratic support the ruling party holds today--wino-time for chess champs not withstanding. Now, if only the nations of Central Africa could find their way out of this US/UK/Israel/UN-concocted voodoo nightmare. --mc]


Arusha, 15 November 2007

ICTR Detainees Arusha - Tanzania

The UN Security Council President, Members of the UN Security Council, The UN Secretary General, The ICTR President,

Objet: Transmission of the Declaration of the ICTR accused and convicted persons declaring their status as "Political Prisoners of United Nations"

Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

We, the ICTR accused and convicted persons signatory to the present letter, have the honor to forward to you hereby attached a Declaration stating our status as Political Prisoners of United Nations.

Sincerely yours.

The signatories: see the list of the signatories of the Declaration [PDF file link below]


We, the accused and convicted persons of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, signatories to the present Declaration,

Having noted that the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was diverted from its official mission to become a political instrument intended to protect the interests of the Victor in the Rwandan conflict which opposed the invading RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front), heavily supported by Uganda, to the legitimate institutions of the Republic of Rwanda and to the Rwandan people in general;[1]

Deeply concerned with the ICTR policy obviously aimed at legitimizing the exclusion of Hutus by the RPF regime from the social and economic reconstruction of our country, as well as, at judging and convicting the leaders of the Hutu community to long prison sentences in order to establish that ethnic exclusion;[2]

Recalling the Security Council Resolution 955[3] on the creation of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda with the mission "to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens responsible for such violations committed in the territory of neighboring States between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994, in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute”;[4]

Noting that when creating the ICTR, the Security Council had the objective to put an end to crimes which were being committed in Rwanda and was determined "to take effective measures" for "the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law" in order to contribute to "the process of national reconciliation and to the restoration and maintenance of peace”;

Recalling that the Security Council decision to establish the ICTR was mainly founded on the preliminary report of the Commission of Experts "on the violations of the international humanitarian law in Rwanda”,[5] completed thereafter by the final report;[6]

Noting that in that final report, the commission recognized that individuals from both sides to the armed conflict "perpetrated crimes against humanity”.[7] The Commission acknowledged, in particular, that "there exists substantial grounds to conclude that mass assassinations, summary executions, breaches of international humanitarian law and crimes against humanity were also perpetrated by Tutsi elements against Hutu individuals"[8] and "recommends that investigation on violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law attributed to the Rwandan Patriotic Front be continued by the ICTR Prosecutor”,[9] including the attack against the aircraft carrying President Habyarimana,[10] which triggered the tragedy;

Noting besides that the Security Council took into account that report which implicates both sides to the conflict, in deciding to establish the seat of the ICTR in a country other than Rwanda, namely, in the town of Arusha, in Tanzania, in order to ensure impartiality and objectivity of the Tribunal;[11]

Bearing in mind that Rwandans from all sides, devoted to peace and justice, including those who fled their country following the take over of the country by the RPF by force, supported the idea of creating an international Tribunal under the auspices of the United Nations with a mission to conduct impartial investigations in order to establish the truth about the Rwandan tragedy, identify impartially those responsible for the crimes committed, including those who perpetrated the attack against the President Habyarimana's aircraft, and proceed to their prosecution;

Noting that the ICTR has largely been a disappointment by not living up to the expectations of the Rwandan people and of members of the international community genuinely committed to fair justice, to the return of everlasting peace and to national reconciliation in Rwanda, notably, by way of the following actions, omissions or decisions:

Not having taken into consideration the war launched by the RPF from Uganda, its strategy of destabilizing the country since 1st October 1990 and, especially, the attack perpetrated against President Habyarimana's plane, on 6 April 1994, as well as the resumption of hostilities by the RPF, immediately thereafter, in violation of the Arusha Agreement;
The fact that the ICTR Prosecutor has ignored these facts without which, in the view of reliable observers, the Rwandan tragedy would not have occurred;
The fact that the ICTR Prosecutor categorically refused to continue and finalize investigations on the attack against the aircraft carrying President Habyarimana, after she had been informed, in May 1997, of the report of his investigator, M. Michael Hourigan, pointing to General Kagame as the perpetrator of the attack; the fact that she claimed from then on that the attack was not under the mandate of the Tribunal and/or had no link with the massacres that yet it triggered, maintaining at the same time her fallacious theory of "pre-planed genocide of Tutsis" by Hutus;[12]
The fact that, by that decision, the Prosecutor does not want the world to know that the RPF is not the savior of the Tutsis, as claimed by the manipulated media, since, if Kagame and the RPF "were found guilty of triggering the events of 1994, the Manichean narrative concerning the evil Hutu genocidaires and innocent Tutsi victims would be thrown into question”;[13]
The fact that, on the contrary, the Office of the Prosecutor actively sought evidence to convict persons chosen arbitrarily as samples representing socio-professional and political categories from the side of the vanquished [14] even by fabricating it in complicity with the RPF, whereas judgments by the Chambers are not at all concerned with establishing the truth; hence, there is a very high risk of having innocent people convicted;
The absence of independence and impartiality on the part of the Tribunal which is reflected through several decisions blatantly partial and directed against Hutus appearing before the Tribunal,[15] and the refusal to prosecute RPF members responsible for crimes against international humanitarian law, pursuant to the ICTR Statute;
The conspiracy between the Prosecutor and the RPF regime to transfer the ICTR accused persons to Rwanda to be tried before jurisdictions of that regime whose leaders are nevertheless responsible of serious crimes against international humanitarian law;[16]
The maneuvers by the ICTR authorities to hand over ICTR convicted persons to that regime whose leaders must instead be prosecuted before this institution;[17]
Considering that the Security Council, instead of making sure that RPF soldiers responsible for serious crimes against international humanitarian law are arrested and prosecuted, in implementation of its Resolutions 1503 of 28 August 2003 and 1534 of 26 March 2004, rather confirmed by its Resolution 1774 of 14 September 2007, the closing of all trial proceedings at the ICTR by the end of 2008;

Noting the confirmation, by reliable sources including officials from the Office of the Prosecutor, of the manipulation of the Tribunal by the American Administration and the British Government in order to shield the RPF from prosecution for the crimes committed during the period that falls within the ICTR jurisdiction, including the assassination of President Habyarimana;[18]

Considering that the UN and ICTR authorities turned deaf ears to our appeals[19] and to the appeals from individuals and associations all over the world in relation to the respect of the official missions of the ICTR as enshrined in Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994,[20] to wit: 1) conduct investigations on all serious crimes against international humanitarian law; 2) prosecute all individuals responsible for such crimes; 3) contribute to national reconciliation;

Having noted that the ICTR has not accomplished any of its missions but has instead been diverted in order to serve as an instrument of the foreign policy of certain superpowers, members of the Security Council, and to reinforce the military dictatorship established in Rwanda by the RPF excluding the Hutu community from power, notably, through collective incrimination and iniquitous justice based on ethnicity;

Strongly convinced that the (CTR has deliberately and arbitrarily conducted arrests only among members of the Hutu ethnic group with a precise political goal of presenting the Hutus as the sole people responsible for the 1994 tragedy, and thus covering up the crimes committed by the RPF;[21]

Consider that the ICTR has put us in prison, first and foremost, for political reasons. On that account, we are POLITICAL PRISONERS of the United Nations. Consequently, we are going, henceforth, to act as such, notably, by denouncing before the international public opinion, the unfairness of trials and judgments issued by that Tribunal under the control of RPF criminals and its powerful supporters with the real but undeclared mission of imposing victor's justice;

Affirm that we have no intention of running away from justice. On the contrary, we strongly and loudly demand the establishment of the truth and fair justice, which are the required conditions to achieve reconciliation of the Rwandan people;

Denounce, in the strongest terms, the blatant political orientation taken by the Tribunal and its transformation into a Tribunal of the Victor, namely, the RPF, as well as the collective and arbitrary incrimination of the Hutu community, which exacerbated resentment between Hutus and Tutsis whereas the Tribunal had instead the mission to contribute to their reconciliation;

Urge the UN authorities, particularly, the members of the Security Council, to make an objective assessment of the judicial activity of the ICTR with regard to its official missions, so as to acknowledge that this Tribunal has failed in its most important objective of establishing the truth, administering fair justice, fighting impunity, as well as, reconciling the Rwandan people;

Request these UN authorities:

1) To extend the mandate of the ICTR instead of shutting it down with such catastrophic assessment and envisage to conduct ongoing proceedings taking into account the new evidence which manifestly question the judgments and the prosecution strategy based on false or partial information with regard to the Rwandan tragedy;

2) To make sure that the ICTR put at the disposal of the convicted persons necessary facilities for the preparation of their motions for the review of their judgments on the basis of the new evidence;

3) To invite the ICTR to proceed, without delay, with the indictment of General Paul Kagame and his collaborators, accused of crimes against the international humanitarian law;

4) To ensure the strict respect of the ICTR missions as enshrined in Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994 and to ensure the independence and impartiality of the Tribunal;

5) To abort the conspiracy aimed at transferring to Rwanda ICTR accused and convicted persons and, instead, to intervene strongly in favor of tens of thousands of people rotting in the death prisons of Rwanda so that they can be granted human detention conditions and benefit from fair justice,[22] to put an end to numerous arbitrary arrests and detentions without files, as well as extra judiciary executions of prisoners and mysterious disappearances of persons;

6) To intervene in order to put an end to hunting down and to arbitrary and discriminatory arrests of Hutus in exile on the basis of arbitrary lists made by the RPF regime whose awful objective is to silence any political opposition to the dictatorship established in Rwanda and even to annihilate Hutus;

Request all Rwandans, particularly, organizations of Rwandans in exile, international organizations and all persons dedicated to fair justice, to help us make our voice understood for the triumph of the truth and justice which constitute the only conditions that will enable the return of peace, promote reconciliation, democracy and harmonious development of the Rwandan people.

Done at Arusha, 15 November 2007

The signatories: see the list of the signatories of the Declaration [PDF file link]*

[1] Rwanda was victim of external aggression from Uganda with massive support from that country without sparking off any firm condemnation by the international community. Indeed, since Uganda was used by certain powerful countries to serve their strategic interests in the region, the international community did not dare to put pressure on that country in order to put an end to the war imposed needlessly on the Rwandan people, what regretted Mr. Herman J. Cohen, former US Under Secretary of State in charge of Africa, in his book titled Intervening in Africa -Superpower Peacekeeping in a Troubled Continent. Worse, the ICTR took judicial notice that the conflict was of internal character instead of international in order to protect powerful external actors in the conflict.

[2] International Crisis Group (ICG), in its Report Africa No 30 dated 7 June 2001, p. 2 and particularly on page 9 where it says: . At the present stage, it [ICTR} contributes to reinforcing the authority of the Kigali regime. By hunting down the leaders of the defeated regime, the ICTR disqualified them from pretending to exercise one day a political role in Rwanda."

[3] S/RES/9S5 (1994) on 8 November 1994.

[4] Article 1 of the ICTR Statute adopted as Annex to the Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994.

[5] Report transmitted to the Security Council by the UN Secretary General by his letter on 1st October 1994 (Doc. 5/1994/1125).

[6] Doc. S/1994/1405 of 9 December 1994.

[7] Doc. S/1994/1405 on 9 December 1994, §§ 181-182.

[8] Ibid., §§ 95; 186.

[9] Ibid. §§ 100; 186.

[10] The Security Council requested several times to the Secretary General to collect information about the responsibility in the death of Presidents of Burundi and Rwanda and to report to it (Declaration of the President ofthe Security Council- S/PRST/1994/16 on 7 April 1994; Resolutions: S/RES/912 (1994) of 21 April 1994; S/RES/918 (1994) of 17 May 1994.

[11] Doc. S/1995/134 of 13 February 1995, §§ 42-43.

[12] Concerning that refusal and his new theory about the ICTR mandate concerning the attack, see Report made by Mr. Michael Hourigan, ICTR investigator, dated 1st August 1997, put into evidence notably in Military I Case as Exhibit DB247, as well as his testimony in the same case put into evidence as Exhibit DNT365. The Prosecutor sustains, since 1997, that fallacious theory within and out of the court, whereas ICTR chambers systematically rejected defense motions requesting investigation on the assassination of President Habyarimana. On the contrary, in his reaction to the “Ordonnance de soit communiqué” of the French Judge Jean louis Bruguiere, dated 17 November 2006, against RPF members for their implication in the attack against President Habyarimana plane, the former Prosecutor M. Richard Goldstone rightly confirmed in the Danish Daily of 10 December 2006 (Berlingske Tidende¬National) that the attack against the President Habyarimana's plane falls well within the mandate of the Tribunal [the ICTR Statute is sufficiently clear on the subject, in its articles 1 and 4]. Despite the fact that Judge Bruguiere's investigations were serious and well detailed, Mr. O'Donnell, ICTR Deputy Registrar and spokesperson of the Tribunal, rejected his conclusions, confirming, once again, the bad faith of the Tribunal. Concerning his theory of planned genocide of Tutsis by the Hutus, the Prosecutor has not been able, as of today, to prove it.

[13] See the Article of Steven Da Silva dated 1st June 2007. Even the Prosecutor Mme Carla Del Ponte declared during her interview made public in Aktuelt Journal on 17 April 2000 that “If it is the RPF that shot down the plane, the history of genocide must be rewritten.”

[14] See the list attached to our letter dated 31 October 2005 denouncing “Two-speed and discriminatory international justice".

[15] Review, on 31 March 2000, of Appeal's Decision releasing Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza dated 3 November 1999, following pressure on the Tribunal and its judges; The Appeal' Decision dated 16 June 2006, in Karemera et al Case [ICTR-98-44- T] about judicial notice of genocide, while this fundamental question was still the subject of debate before the Chambers. These are blatant examples, among others, that we mentioned particularly in our letter denouncing "Double-standard and discriminatory international justice", dated 31 October 2005.

[16] Prosecutor's motion for the transfer of M. Fulgence Kayishema, indicted person not yet arrested, dated 11 June 2007 and Prosecutor's motions to transfer to Rwanda the cases of detainees Yusuf Munyakazi, Gaspard Kanyarukiga and IIdephonse Hategekimana.

[17] See detainees letters dated: 10/06/2002; 16/02/2004; 29/03/2004; 24/05/2004; 1 4/06/2004; 04/07/2004; 15/07/2004; 19/09/2004; 19/02/2005; 03/04/2006; 10/1/2007; 23/01/2007; 28/03/2007; 21/06/2007; 06/08/2007 et 05/10/2007.

[18] See notably: the testimony of Michael Hourigan in Military I Case put into evidence as DNT365; Madame Florence Hartmann, former spokesperson for the Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte, in her book entitled "Paix et châtiment: les guerres secrètes de la politique et de 10 iustice internationals" (Paris, Flammarion, 10 September 2007, particularly in pages 262 to 275 and Agence Hirondelle of 7 September 2007). All those elements are mentioned in our letter 05 October 2007 and in the open letter of Prof. Erlinder addressed to the Security Council on 26 March 2007.

[19] See ICTR detainees letters addressed to the UN and ICTR authorities, notably on: 14/09/1998; 28/10/1998; 19/04/1999; 03/06/1999; 09/08/1999; 18/10/1999; 12/09/1999; 30/11/1999; 17/01/2000; 08/03/2000; 20/03/2000; OS/04/2000; 12/06/2000; 24/10/2000; 15/12/2000; 28/05/2001; 13/12/2001; 12/03/2002; 10/06/2002; 12/08/2003; 16/02/2004; 29/03/2004 ; 14/06/2004; 04/07/2004; 14/01/2005; 19/02/2005; 03/06/2005; 25/06/2006; 10/01/2007; 23/01/2007; 28/03/2007; 08/07/2007; 14/07/2007; 06/08/ 2007 ; 05/10/2007.

[20] They include: Amnesty International, International Association of Democratic Lawyers (IADL), Professor Filip Reyntjens, French Judge Jean Louis Bruguière, Juan Carrero Saralegui, Forces Démocratiques unifiées (FDU), International Crisis Group (ICG), Centre de Lutte Contre l'impunite et 1'injustice au Rwanda (CLIIR), Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney, Mme Marie-Roger Biloa, Robin Philpot, Charles ONANA, Edouard Herman, Steven Da Silva, Victoire Ingabire, Déo Mushayidi, Forum International pour la Vérité et la Justice dans l'Afrique des Grands Lacs. It is necessary to mention, particularly, the letter dated 7 August 2003, to the Security Council, signed following the removal of Ms Carla Del Ponte from the ICTR, in order to prevent the prosecution of RPF soldiers, by the following personalities: Sidiki Kaba, Président de la Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de I'Homme ; Mike Posner, Executive Director of Lawyers Committee for Human Rights; Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch; Alioune Tine, Secrétaire-Général de la Rencontre Africaine pour la Défense des Droits de I'Homme. Those personalities requested the Security Council to "ensure that any changes do not undermine the ICTR's efforts to prosecute charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity against members of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA)."

[21] Some accused were arrested without any indictment and had to wait in prison for many months to be indicted; others had their indictments modified several times before and/or during the trial because the Prosecutor had no precise charges against them.

[22] The same intervention is required in favor of those who are tried before the Gacaca courts. They are facing a policy of arbitrary denunciation imposed by the RPF regime; they do not have lawyers to defend them and risk severe sentences.

The signatories: see the list of the signatories of the Declaration [PDF file link above*
Copy to:

The ICTR Judges (all);
The ICTR Registrar, Arusha;
The ICTR Prosecutor, Arusha;
Defense Lawyers (all);
ADAD President, Arusha;
The President of the European Union;
The President of the African Union;
Commission for Human Rights, Geneva;
International Commission of Jurists, Geneva.
American Association of Jurists;
International Association of Democratic Jurists, New Delhi. European Court of Justice;
European Court for Human Rights, Strasbourg;
African Court for Human Rights;
Center fighting against Impunity and Injustice in Rwanda, Brussels; FDU (Forces Democratiques Unifiees);
Dukomere Association, Brussels;
Families of the signatories;
Amnesty International, London;
Lawyers without borders, Paris;
FDIH, Paris;
Human Rights Watch;
The press.

Darfurism, Uganda and the U.S. War in Africa: The Spectre of Continental Genocide -- by Keith Harmon Snow

Darfurism, Uganda and the U.S. War in Africa: The Spectre of Continental Genocide -- by Keith Harmon Snow

[Keith Harmon Snow's reporting ( on Africa came as a real shock--a very pleasant shock, like some righteous Mexican dope after a whole season of slamming flea powder--when he showed up on my screen here a while back. His 'Hotel Rwanda: Hollywood and the Holocaust in Central Africa', which has been reposted below with some updating, gave a massive info-boost to our study of Popular Film and the (un)Making-Of History. Mr Snow's latest contribution to the redemption of African History comes at a most opportune time: Now that the 'Stop the Fucking Genocide in Darfur' campaign has been outted for the mawkish reversion to amped-up militarism it has always been--just ask Geo Clooney, Sammy Powers or Nick Kristoff what they'd prospose to end the mass killing they're constantly keening over, and they'd quickly respond, 'Send in more 'peacekeeping troops and equipment'. In October 2007, right after the approval of a 26,000-strong contingent of UN and AU forces to be sent into Darfur, the local 'rebels', whose sole means of reproducing themselves (i.e., of making a living) has become to destroy everyone and everything that they can't either eat, fuck or rub gun oil on, and really can't be bothered with peace talks much beyond the free buffet, swept into an AU camp, ripped off all the new equipment, ran off with 40 or so peacekeeping hostages, and blew away a dozen or so more of their proletarian brothers. Snow points out just how these so-called 'humanitarian interventions' lead directly to the '(humanitarian?) genocides', that have been going on in Africa and elsewhere (but have recently spiked in Eastern Congo with the maraudings of Gen Laurent Nkunda(batwarae) and his 'Tutsi Defense Forces') for far too long (body count: 9 million and counting just since 1 October 1990). We did a bit of editing on this piece, but it only served to make KHS come up with even more pertinent data. So there's a lot of food for the ever-hungry African info wonk here. Like eating a fat Burrito King machaca, be careful you don't get a bunch of it down the front of your Oaxacan wedding shirt. Just dive in, consume with consideration and don't sweat the indigestion--this stuff shouldn't go down easy. --mc]


Darfurism, Uganda and the U.S. War in Africa: The Spectre of Continental Genocide

by Keith Harmon Snow

First published: October 29, 2007
Revised & republished: November 1, 2007
Revised & republished with Global Research: 12 November 2007
Revised and expanded: 13 November 2007

President Bush met with Uganda’s President-for-life Yoweri Museveni in the White House on October 30, 2007. Meanwhile, a broad swath of Africa is engulfed in interrelated genocides and covert operations involving both the U.S. and Uganda, there is a growing demand to probe the accounts of “Save Darfur” to find out how the tens of millions collected are being spent due to allegations of arms-deals and bribery, and the “Save Darfur” movement has become the false flag action of the West, supported by most everyone, people who know little or nothing about what it is they are supporting.

When President George Bush met with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni at the White House on October 30 they certainly discussed much more than “Uganda's leadership in Somalia, the Lord's Resistance Army, and President Museveni's development plan for northern Uganda” or their “strong partnership to combat malaria and HIV/AIDS in Uganda,” as announced by the White House Office of the Press Secretary.

The role of Yoweri Museveni and his “government” in service to the Western economic neoliberalism and the shock doctrine of deconstruction and chaos is greatly misunderstood and deeply camouflaged by simplified establishment narratives like those above. Bush and Museveni discussed the U.S.-Uganda military relations and bilateral involvement in the ongoing wars in Sudan, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo). The “partnership to combat malaria and HIV/AIDS” is camouflage language for military vaccination and bio-warfare programs involving pharmaceutical giants like Pfizer, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, USAID, and “humanitarian” philanthropies.[1] A vaccine for malaria was developed for the U.S. military some time ago and this is shared only with certain U.S. client state partners, though “clinical trials” have been undertaken in public using African “volunteers.” [2]

Museveni and Bush certainly discussed America’s escalating war in the Sahara desert, expanding petroleum operations across the region, U.S. Special Forces deployments and newly identified uranium resources in Uganda.[3] Maybe they discussed the March 1, 1999 killing of eight foreign tourists at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, a story that has not yet been critically unpacked.[4] The “development plan for northern Uganda” is euphemistic language for the ongoing depopulation and massive natural resource extraction that today proceeds in northern Uganda in parallel with the genocide of the Acholi people and Uganda’s militarization in support of covert programs in Sudan and Congo.

The Darfur conflict rides along the fault line of continental warfare spread from Niger to Djibouti and Somalia, and from eastern Congo and Rwanda, through Uganda and Sudan, to Eritrea and the Red Sea. Congo is at war with Uganda and Rwanda. Ethiopia is at war with Somalia, and poised to reinvade Eritrea: there are massive troop build-ups on both sides of the Eritrean-Ethiopia border. Ethiopia, Uganda and Chad are the three “frontline” states militarily destabilizing Sudan. Uganda is internally and externally at war, has intervened secretly in Burundi, and the Ugandan military recently re-occupied towns in eastern Congo over petroleum. Rwanda is fighting in Eastern Congo, meddling in Burundi, and has some 2000 troops in Darfur. Burundi is militarily involved in Congo and soon to be in Somalia. Khartoum backs guerrilla armies in Uganda, Chad and Congo.

The U.S. is all over the place, with both covert and overt military programs. France, England, Canada, Belgium, Libya, Israel and China are all involved. All these conflicts are intertwined, and the targeted populations have allegiances and alliances dictated by the pre-colonial boundaries and trade relations that existed prior to the demarcation of colonial interests at the Berlin Conference of 1885 under the imperial doctrine of divide and conquer. In 1885 “Soudan” was synonymous with “Sahara” and “Darfur” was the center of power.[5] Conflict involving U.S. covert forces and nomads in Niger and Nigeria, for example, impacts Sudan: the history of the Sahara revolves around the trans-Saharan influence of the Mahdi. In 1875 the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, led the indigenous resistance against Britain. ‘Abdallah at-Ta‘ishi, the Mahdi’s “Khalifah” or successor, who took over as leader of the independent Sudan when the Mahdi died in June 1885, was a native of Darfur.[6] Today, people from Nigeria to Somalia remember the Mahdi.


On October 24, 2007, the United Nations awarded Lockheed-Martin subsidiary Pacific Architects and Engineers a $250 million no-bid contract to provide “infrastructure” for the United Nations “peacekeeping” missions now unfolding in Sudan (Darfur), Somalia, and Chad/Central Africa Republic. The newly announced contract is to build five new camps in Sudan's Darfur and Kordofan regions for 4,100 U.N. and African Union personnel. Lockheed Martin is the world’s largest and most secretive aerospace and defense corporation.

This is not Pacific Architects and Engineers’ first contract in Darfur, or in Africa’s “peacekeeping” missions. PAE won the contract for staffing the deeply compromised “Civilian Protection Monitoring Team” (CPMT) in Sudan under a U.S. State Department contract. In 2004 the CPMT office was being run by Brigadier General Frank Toney (retired), who was previously the commander of Special Forces for the United States Army; General Toney organized covert operations into Iraq and Kuwait in the first Gulf War.

Pratap Chaterjee reported in 2004 how “Lieutenant-Colonel Michael Bittrick, the deputy director of regional and security affairs for Africa at the State Department, flew to Ethiopia to hammer out an agreement to support African Union troops by committing to provide housing, office equipment, transport, and communications gear. This will be provided via an ‘indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity’ joint contract awarded to Dyncorp Corporation, and Pacific Architects & Engineers (PAE) worth $20.6 million.”[7] PAE also set up MONUC operations in Congo, and continues to operate there; the total PAE involvement includes numerous intermediary contracts. In 2002 PAE/Daher won a $34 million air-services follow-on contract amidst complaints of a “lack of transparency and irregularities in the procurement system…confirmed by the bidding of the air-service contract with PAE/Daher.”[8] Daher International is a French aerospace and defense corporation.[9]

Meanwhile, the “Save Darfur” advocates pressing military intervention in Darfur as a “humanitarian” gesture have escalated pressure in the face of mounting failures, including allegations that millions of “Save Darfur” dollars fundraised on a sympathy for victims platform have been misappropriated.

But the players, the private military companies, the arms dealers—and a handful of missing SRAM missiles armed with nuclear warheads dumped by an American B-52 before it crashed—are mostly unknown to the general public. These covert wars all involve different propaganda strategies to provide cover and deflect attention through “perception management”—managing the perceptions, stereotyping and creating false belief systems—of the North American and European public.

The numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons across the region are staggering and they are indicative of a cataclysmic regional crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. This is not because refugees, insurgency and guerrilla warfare are inherent to Africa: refugees and IDPs are big business for white systems of power that maintain structural violence based on profits and the globalization of poverty, terror and war. The numbers are staggering, and these are not merely statistics, they are about suffering human beings.

United Nations agencies report some 4,700,163 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sudan—2,152,163 in Darfur and 2,276,000 in Northern Sudan—with some 686,311 refugees out of Sudan.


Burundi: 100,000 IDPs 396,541 refugees out

Chad: 179,940 IDPs 36,300 refugees out

Central Africa Rep.: 212,000 IDPs 71,685 refugees out

Dem. Rep. of Congo: 1,400,000 IDPs 401,914 refugees out

Eritrea: 32,000 IDPs 193,700 refugees out

Ethiopia: ?200,000? IDPs 80,000 refugees out

Kenya: 413,000 IDPs 5,356 refugees out

Rwanda: ???? IDPs 92,966 refugees out

Somalia: 700,000 IDPs 464,253 refugees out

Sudan: 4,703,163 IDPs 686,311 refugees out

Uganda: 1,310,000 IDPs 21,752 refugees out

Is Kenya at war? Sure looks like it. Unreported anywhere are the massive petroleum concessions and exploration projects in Kenya’s remote Samburu and Turkana districts. (For $5000 apiece you can purchase reports like Petroleum Potential of Lake Turkana Area from international oil and gas consultants Beicip-Franlab.[11]) G.H.W. Bush’s old Swedish pal Adolph Lundin and Lundin Petroleum signed an exploration contract for the Turkana region in June 2007.[12]

While the United Nations lists some 200,000 IDPs in Ethiopia, the Norwegian Refugee Council’s Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (iDMC) reports: “[r]elatively little is known about the extent and nature of conflict-induced internal displacement in Ethiopia.” There are 92,966 refugees out of Rwanda, if we can trust the iDMC numbers, and an “indeterminate” number of IDPs. Refugee and IDP statistics, like mortality figures, are highly politicized. The situation in Ethiopia today is cataclysmic and the United Nations and the vast network of profit-based NGOs operating in Ethiopia are complicit in genocide because they do not stand up against that regime in fear of losing business.[13]

These humanitarian emergencies involve massive depopulation and death, internally displaced persons and trans-national refugees, all of which provide a lucrative business opportunity for Western “relief” and “development” organizations. The business of AID is a racket. Weapons sales are a racket. The people who suffer are different from the industries, the providers of services, equipment and expertise who profit from these crises. Like most weaponry, landmines are predominantly manufactured in white economies of North America and Europe and, scandalously, it is the companies from the same white economies who have a lock on UN landmine removal contracts worth billions of dollars a year. The so-called “humanitarian relief” business is an industry that relies on the creation of markets. Millions of people across the region are dying, while millions more are homeless, set adrift in a sea of nowhere, with no rights, no possessions, no protection and very little prospect for survival; their only hopes come from the false belief that the Western “humanitarian” AID enterprise is designed to rescue them.

The engagement of the world’s premier war-making industries—Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Bechtel, SAIC, PAE, Northrup Grumman—behind and within a so-called “peacekeeping” platform is not new, and something is seriously wrong with this picture.


“Save Darfur” is the predominant propaganda front running on Africa and it has overwhelmed the public consciousness with deceptions. In this establishment narrative Arabs on horseback, the Janjaweed, backed by the Sudan government seated in Khartoum, are the purveyors of genocide. This mirrors the establishment narrative of Rwanda, 1994, which said that the Hutus and the nasty Interahamwe militias committed genocide against the Tutsis in 100 days of killing with machetes. The Rwanda genocide narrative—combined with the narrative about “humanitarian” intervention in Yugoslavia, where the final blow to dismember the country came with the NATO bombing campaign—set the stage for the Darfur genocide narrative.

All over the United States, Britain and Canada advocates and activists who claim to be concerned about human rights, and even those who otherwise would not get involved, have supported the “Save Darfur” movement, a political movement similar to the anti-Apartheid movement mobilized against South Africa in the 1980’s. The “Save Darfur” movement has resulted in a huge outpouring of funds, and it has mobilized support from people in all walks of life, and across the political spectrum, on the “never again” platform of “stopping genocide.”

Hollywood personalities dubbed “actorvists,” including Mia Farrow, Don Cheadle and George Clooney, have helped to whip up the “Save Darfur” hysteria. From Elie Wiesel to Barak Obama, people are “outraged” by genocide that the Bush Administration, we are told, is reluctant to stop. And it is hysteria, in the true definition of the word, but it did not simply rise out of a sudden concern for a bunch of Africans in some far-off God-forsaken place (as it is portrayed).

At a “Voices for Darfur” fundraiser held on October 21, 2007 at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts, for example, the local chapter of the Congregation B’Nai Israel Darfur Action coalition, raised over $14,000 for “humanitarian” aid to Darfur. The B’Nai Israel Save Darfur Coalition had a broad array of public and organizational support, including other Jewish organizations, Smith College, Northampton Mayor Claire Higgins, Massachusetts’ Senator Stan Rosenberg and Representative Peter Kocot. The campaign organizers claim that “more than 90% goes to direct-on-the-ground AID.” Working with big humanitarian groups like Doctors Without Borders and Save the Children, it is impossible that 90% of funds will hit the ground in Darfur.[14]

Behind the “Save Darfur” movement are fundamentalist organizations and think tanks with a deeply nationalistic, militaristic, religious fundamentalist agenda. The Center for Security Policy, for example, supports the “star wars” Strategic Defense Initiative, Homeland Security—which is nothing more than expanding militarism and emasculated public rights—and the Biometric Security Project. The BSP centers around emerging biological technologies that will be used to register, identify, monitor, track and control each and every U.S. citizen. They call it “identity assurance,” it involves state-of-the-art recognition equipment, sensors and security technologies, and it is a central component of the evolving national security and “counter-terrorism” apparatus.[15]

The Center for Security Policy is the nerve center of the U.S. military and intelligence apparatus, a deeply nationalist, neoliberal think-tank and flak organization promoting the all-out attack against non-cooperative governments—dubbed “rogue states”—peripheral to Western economic control. These, of course, are primarily Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, North Korea and Cuba. Zimbabwe is a special case that has joined the list to some degree. What these states have in common is that they are all targeted for divestment by the Center for Security Policy brainchild, Sudan is another of the “rogue states” targeted.

The establishment narrative on Darfur motivates U.S. citizens to take action to “Save Darfur,” thus facilitating popular support for heightened U.S. military involvement. The truth is that the United States military is already there, in its various incarnations, and the United States is involved in atrocities.


In the northern Uganda region—involving South Sudan and northeastern Congo—another conflict has boiled for over 21 years between the government Uganda People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), led by Yoweri Museveni, and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony. This war offers yet another one-sided Western establishment narrative that says that Kony and the LRA—always described as a Christian fanatical cult that captures and drugs children—is the primary problem in northern Uganda. (Usually African savages are not Christian enough for America’s liking; here we find that they are too Christian.)

The establishment narrative has been furthered across the popular culture, in everything from Vanity Fair to the BBC to the journal The National Catholic Weekly (America). The newly established ENOUGH Project (ENOUGH “genocide” and “not on my watch” etc., etc.) picked up the mantle of LRA atrocities and, like Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, has supported the establishment narrative which shields the Museveni government from the kind of criticism and international action that is called for in keeping with the scale of the atrocities the Uganda government is responsible for. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have produced disinformation in some cases, Rwanda and Yugoslavia being the most notable.

The Museveni war machine and its state terror apparatus have perpetrated massive atrocities in the region and this has evolved into genocide against the Acholi, Teso and Lango people of the north. The indigenous Acholi people have been forced onto concentration camps over the past 21 years, and these camps have become places of death. In the establishment narrative, the people are always the victims of Kony’s LRA “rebellion.”

Human Rights Watch has addressed torture and government complicity in atrocities in Uganda, and other problems, but they have rarely named names or corporations, and they almost never link the conflict or the atrocities to Western interests. One massive report on Northern Uganda details criminal government actions, but the recommendations sections effectively sanction structural violence and white supremacy.[16] The net effect of these policy and “human rights” positions is complicity in genocide and genocide denial on the part of Uganda.

Contrary to the proliferation of propaganda always attributing child abductions to Kony’s LRA—another example of Western Orientalism that essentializes Africa to serve political purposes—is research showing that many LRA abductions are short term with children returning home from LRA abductions in less than three weeks. Further, many children who fight with the LRA have joined by choice, and they do so willingly.[17] In “Childhood’s End” (Vanity Fair, 2006) Christopher Hitchens described the LRA as a “grotesque zombie-like militia…that has set a standard of cruelty and ruthlessness…” American troops that have committed atrocities in Iraq and Afghanistan, no less brutal or gruesome or sadistic, would never be described this way.

Yoweri Museveni and his business and military partners are responsible for millions of deaths, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Eastern Congo. Museveni and his generals were the primary backers of Congolese warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo. With UPDF support, Bemba’s MLC perpetrated massive atrocities under the covert military operation, Effacer le Tableau (Erasing the Board)—a scorched earth policy amounting to genocide against the Mbuti pygmies of Eastern Congo.[18]

The U.S. military invasion of Zaire (now Congo), involved U.S. covert forces, U.S. military communications, logistical and weapons support, and Ugandan and Rwandan forces. Humvees, C-130’s and black-skinned U.S. Special Forces entered South Sudan and northeastern Congo through the Gulu and Arua Districts of Uganda, the heart of Acholiland and the center of atrocities against the Acholi people.[19]

Ugandan and British interests living mostly in Britain and aligned with the former dictator Idi Amin have always backed the Lord’s Resistance Army and the West Nile Bank Front; support also came from Saudi Arabia and Qatar (the Qatar General Petroleum Corporation is involved in Sudan’s oil sector and has partnered in various international enterprises with Norwegian, Japanese and French corporations). Idi Amin, the brutal dictator, lived out his life in luxury in Saudi Arabia (d. 2003). The LRA stepped up its military actions in parallel with the UPDF invasion of Zaire (1996) and the subsequent years of warfare and plunder in Congo (1998-present).

According to the investigations of the United Nations and the humanitarian law work of lawyer Karen Parker, the war in Uganda involves massive rapes, killing, tortures, and extrajudicial executions as a policy by the Ugandan military. Some 1.3 million people are displaced in the Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts of northern Uganda (there were 1.7 million IDPs in March 2007). There are over 73 camps with from 1000 to 50,000 people in each of them, all forcibly displaced by UPDF soldiers, with over 350,000 people out of some 400,000 displaced from the Gulu district alone.[20]


The forced displacements of Acholi people began with Museveni’s ascension to power in 1986, but major forced displacements occurred throughout the 1990’s and again in 2002-2003. However, there was a massive displacement operation in 1996 that appears to have been coordinated in part with the planned U.S. invasion of Zaire from Northern Uganda and Rwanda.

The UPDF Army barracks at Masindi and the airstrip at Gulu, both in Northern Uganda, served as the staging grounds for the U.S. invasion of Zaire. The Museveni government organized the closure of northern Uganda in October 1996 ostensibly because of heightened LRA attacks. The UPDF, in chronological coincidence with the U.S. invasion, forced hundreds of thousands of Acholis into concentration camps in the fall of 1996, often by bombing and burning villages and murdering, beating, raping and threatening those who would not comply.

According to testimony from eyewitnesses, on Oct 26, 1996, the top Ugandan brass behind the invasion of Zaire met at the village of Paraa, in the Murchison Falls National Park, near Lake Albert, in the Gulu District. At the meeting were: {1} UPDF Brigadier General Moses Ali—Idi Amin’s right hand man who later became Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister for Disaster Preparedness, and Deputy Prime Minister in the Museveni administration; {2} Museveni’s half-brother Salim Saleh; {3} then-Colonel James Kazini; and {4} Dr. Eric Adroma—head of Uganda National Parks. Salim Saleh is perhaps the leading agent of terror in the UPDF Zaire/Congo wars, but both Saleh and commander James Kazini led UPDF troops involved in war crimes, crimes against humanity, and acts of genocide involving millions of people in Eastern Congo (1996-2007).

The meeting was ostensibly about security, and it was announced that due to a recent LRA rebel attack at Paraa, the UPDF would be placing parts of Northern Uganda off limits to all non-military personnel. (LRA rebels committed the Paraa attack; UPDF troops arrived on the scene quickly and looted bodies but did not pursue the LRA.) The main road from Karuma to the border town of Pakwach was thereafter closed. This road apparently served as a primary transport route for Ugandan and non-Ugandan military—including black U.S. Special Forces—who invaded Zaire.[21]

On November 6, 1996, Bill Clinton was re-elected. Around 10 November 1996 an armored 4x4 Humvee (HUMMWV)—heavily rigged with sophisticated communications equipment inside and out—was encountered carrying two black U.S. Special Forces in the Murchison Falls region: the soldiers were wearing UPDF uniforms. Two busloads of black U.S. Special Forces were encountered at a UPDF checkpoint on the Karuma-Pakwach road; wearing civilian clothes, with duffel bags, the muscled and crew cut “civilians” showed U.S. passports and claimed they were “doctors” heading to the tiny Gulu hospital. From November 21-23, Boeing C-130 military aircraft passed over the region every 30 minutes, 24 hours a day, heading both north and south. The C-130’s apparently landed at Gulu airstrip—closed by the Museveni government for a two-week period—and offloaded military equipment then moved by roads—closed by the UPDF—to the border. Some C-130’s were charted on a course believed to take them to Goma, Zaire. From mid-November to February 1997, access to northwestern Uganda regions was highly restricted. On 1 March 1997, another wave of C-130’s passed over the region. The UPDF used the LRA threat as cover for massive military operations involving the invasion of Zaire for the United States of America.[22]

The in-country U.S. Ambassador to Uganda at the time was E. Michael Southwick (October 1994-August 1997). Oil surveys began in 1998 and the entire Northwestern Uganda region is now designated as oil concessions controlled by Heritage Oil and Gas, Hardman Oil and Tullow Oil, three Anglo-American companies connected to British mercenary Tony Buckingham (founder of he mercenary firms Sandline International and Executive Outcomes) and his partners.[23] Nexant, a Bechtel subsidiary, is involved with the trans-Uganda-Kenya pipeline. The South African firm Energem—tied to Tony Buckingham through Anthony Texeira, the brother-in-law of Congolese warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba—is also involved. Another Energem and Buckingham affiliated company tight with the Museveni regime is Branch Energy, involved with the oil pipeline and mining in Uganda.

On September 5, 2007, UPDF troops—and rebels reportedly aligned with Jean-Pierre Bemba—had occupied the Congo’s oil- and gold-rich Semliki Basin on the western shores of Lake Albert. Heavily armed foreign forces occupied the villages of Aru, Mahagi, Fataki, Irengeti and the Ruwenzori mountains. The international press and the United Nations Observers Mission in Congo (MONUC) remained completely silent about the Ugandan incursions. By September 8, 2007, Ugandan troops were heavily massed on the Congo border while Kabila and Museveni were signing oil and gold sharing agreements in Tanzania. UPDF forces and “rebel” troops alleged to be Bemba’s remained in Congo as of October 25. The MONUC information offices were claiming by mid-October that UPDF had pulled out, but Congolese citizens in eastern Congo continued to report a significant UPDF military occupation.[24]

The China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Company is also involved in the Uganda-Kenya pipeline, offering an interesting comparison for people concerned about China’s involvement in atrocities in the Darfur region. And, after much scrambling, Libya was cut out of the Kenya-Uganda pipeline deals.[25] The petroleum sector in Libya involves U.S., Canadian and European companies.

Uganda’s representation at the International Criminal Court exploring war crimes in Congo has included at least two very high-profile lawyers from Foley Hoag LLP, an influential Washington law firm deeply entrenched in the proliferation of the mainstream narratives and the victor’s justice doled out—through the ICTY and ICTR tribunals—on Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The Pentagon seconded its lawyers from the Judge Advocate General (JAG) Corps to the ICTR to “try” those unfortunate “enemies” both arbitrarily and selectively accused of genocide.[26]

The people most responsible for atrocities in the region—unprecedented human bloodletting, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide—are protected. These include Yoweri Museveni, Salim Saleh, Paul Kagame, James Kazini, Moses Ali, James Kabarebe, Taban Amin, Jean-Pierre Bemba, Laurent Nkunda, Meles Zenawi…a long list of people whose culpability is without question, many of whom have been named for atrocities again and again. U.S. Special Operations forces know what happened and should be deposed under oath in a legitimate International Criminal Court, which at present does not exist, and is not in the making. Ditto for Madeleine Albright, Anthony Lake, Thomas Pickering, Susan Rice, John Prendergast, General William Wald, General Frank Toney, Walter Kansteiner, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Richard Holbroke, Roger Winter, Frank G. Wisner, Andrew Young…another short list.

Foley Hoag LLP is also tied to the U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council. On May 6, 2002, in Washington D.C., Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and wife Janet were special guests at a U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council event sponsored by members like Coke, Pfizer and Chevron-Texaco. Museveni also met with President Bush at the White House. Coke director Kathleen Black is a principal in the Hearst media empire, while Coke directors Warren Buffet and Barry Diller are directors of the Washington Post Company, and these are the media institutions that whitewash client regimes, corporate plunder and Pentagon actions. Of course, Coca Cola covets the gum Arabic potential of Darfur, and Coke is a client of Andrew Young’s PR firm Goodworks International. Uganda’s image is sanitized by one of the world’s largest PR firms, London’s Hill & Knowlton. In 2005 Uganda spent some $700,000 on a Hill & Knowlton contract to facilitate and “encourage dialogue between the Ugandan government and people like Human Rights Watch, Amnesty, Oxfam.” [27]


Museveni’s bush war began in 1980. Paul Kagame, current President of Rwanda, was Museveni’s Director of Military Intelligence in the mid-1980’s. Museveni and Kagame led the invasion of Rwanda in 1990. The two military commanders utilized terrorist tactics that assigned blame for atrocities they committed—against both their enemies and their own people—on their enemies. They used psychological operations, embedded international reporters, and fabrication of massacres. These tactics have continued to the present.

While Rwanda is billed as a major “success story” of recovery and development after a devastating genocide—see for example the PR “documentary” film Rwanda Rising produced by Andrew Young’s Goodworks International—the country is ruled with an iron-fist and a finely tuned intelligence and torture apparatus involved in political assassinations, suppression of information and disappearances. Huge areas of Rwanda were entirely depopulated by the Rwandan Patriotic Front and UPDF as they hammered away at Rwanda beginning in October 1990. The invasion culminated in a coup d’etat that succeeded, with broad U.S. military support, in capturing Kigali in July of 1994.

From 1994 to the present President Paul Kagame has used the genocide card and the establishment narrative to institutionalize repression, criminalize or assassinate anyone who challenges the regime, and further depopulate rural areas for “development” benefiting corporate interests.

Another member of the U.S.-Uganda Friendship council is the Honorable Andrew Young, former Mayor of Atlanta and U.S. Ambassador to the UN. Andrew Young and his firm, Goodworks International, have helped whitewash the image of the Rwanda government and its state apparatus of terror. Andrew Young, Quincy Jones and other wealthy Americans are building (have built) mansions on the shores of Rwanda’s Lake Mwazi in areas where peasants were driven off the land or killed by the Kagame terror machine before, during and after 1994. State terror and depopulation is ongoing along Lake Kivu and in the Volcanoes National Parks region for methane and high-end tourism development.[28]

Back to the refugees and IDPs question, the United Nations recognized some 650,000 IDPs in “makeshift camps” in Rwanda in 1998 and 1999, in the northwestern prefectures of Ruhengeri and Gisenyi. These IDPs were categorized as “mostly Hutu” and forcibly resettled through implementation of Rwanda’s “National Habitat Policy, or “villagisation” policy, of December 1996, which provides for the relocation of all Rwandans living in scattered homesteads into government-created villages.[29] While the UN ceased to recognize these people in Rwanda as internally displaced, in 2003 there remained 200,000 families living in IDP conditions.[30] What is their status today?

Rwanda gains currency and good press through big HIV/AIDS projects run by Paul Farmer, but funded by the Clinton AIDS foundation. Rwanda was overthrown by and for the Pentagon on Clinton’s watch. Hillary Clinton toured Uganda in July 1997, wore African clothes, danced African dances, and spoke about “democracy” and “development” and a “partnership” against HIV/AIDS.

The Kagame regime has recently awarded petroleum concessions to Canada’s Vangold Resources for the project titled “White Elephant” in northern Rwanda—2700 sq. kilometers of land depopulated by the Rwandan Patriotic Front/Army between 1990 and 2007. [31] Contracted to provide “feasibility studies” of petroleum infrastructural development in Rwanda is the San Diego firm Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). [32]

SAIC has ongoing collaborations with Bechtel—another of the world’s most secretive aerospace technology, energy infrastructure and defense contractors—both known for their involvement in U.S. beyond top-secret “black” programs; SAIC also works closely with DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. [33] Recent SAIC directors have included: U.S. Navy Admiral B.R. Inman (Ret.); U.S. Army General W.A. Downing (Ret.); and U.S. Air Force General J.A. Welch (Ret.). SAIC also has an ongoing collaboration with the multibillion-dollar pharmaceutical giant Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS). [34] Unsurprisingly, through shared directorships, BMS is economically and politically aligned with the New York Times Corporation. SAIC has also been flagged for involvement in highly questionable U.S. mercenary activities and human rights violations in Africa.[35]

Petroleum, defense and mining interests connected to the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International programs in “gorilla conservation” led to the production of high-tech satellite prospecting data, gathered by remote sensing over-flights (1994-2000), delivered to the Rwandan Ministry of Defense.[36]

The Pentagon has been involved in building military bases in Rwanda, installing military and civilian communications infrastructure, and training Rwandan Defense Forces; a military-communications radar installation has been constructed with U.S. support on Mt. Karisimbi in Ruhengeri Province.[37] The installation is being built by the Rwanda Ministry of Defense in partnership with the “Rwandan” company Terracom SPRL and Rwandatel. Terracom is owned by U.S. businessman Greg Wyler; Rwandatel is its 99%-owned subsidiary.[38]

It is believed that Rwanda Defense Forces (RDF) sent to Darfur on the African Union “peacekeeping” mission include black U.S. Special Forces disguised as RDF—just as the black U.S. Special Forces were disguised as UPDF during the invasion of Zaire.

Andrew Young is widely lauded as a leader of the African-American civil rights movement and ally of Martin Luther King, Jr., claims that were specious to begin with. “In Rwanda Rising,” reads the PR promo for the film, Andrew Young, “a former United Nations Ambassador, Civil Rights leader and top aide to the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. documented the amazing transformation taking place in Rwanda today, including the country’s remarkable story of reconciliation despite the 1994 Genocide.” [39]

Rwanda Rising opened the 15th Annual Pan African Film and Arts Festival February 8, 2007. “Fifteen years into the Pan African Film and Arts Festival and we continue to showcase the important stories of our brothers and sisters on the Continent,” Festival Director Ayuko Babu said. “Having Rwanda Rising open this year’s festival is keeping in that tradition while making sure that we stay connected to our roots in Africa.” [40]


Lockheed Martin is a California-based aerospace and defense giant involved in classified black programs that are beyond “top-secret” and shielded from government oversight. In September 2003, CNN—a corporate-military “news” agency deeply embedded with the Pentagon—reported “[a]ccording to the U.S. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA), classified or black programs account for about $23.2 billion or 17 percent of the 2004 budget request for the Department of Defense.”

According to United Nations spokeswoman Michele Montas, the six-month Darfur contract with Lockheed-Martin subsidiary Pacific Architect Engineers, Inc., was awarded without competitive bidding “because of complex requirements and a short timeline.”

Reporting from the United Nations, Inner City Press said the terms of the contract will not be made public and the United Nations has violated numerous UN charter laws in making this award.[41]

The no-bid award process followed the United Nation’s issuance of an official “Expressions of Interest” notice on October 9, 2007. “The United Nations is seeking Expressions of Interest (EOI) from experienced Multi Functional Logistics Services (MFLS) contractors,” the UN’s EOI notice reads, “for the provision of a wide range of services at headquarters, logistic bases, military and police camps, airfields and water resources at various locations in any or all of the following: the Darfur Region of Sudan, Chad/Central African Republic (CAR), and Somalia.”

Inner City Press reported that the EOI solicitation, made after the rules had already been waived to allow the transfer of $250 million to Lockheed Martin for six months in Darfur, is intended to try to clean up the process after-the-fact.[42]

Another multinational aerospace and defense corporation directly benefiting from this regional U.S. war is Boeing Aircraft Corporation. The U.S. military used Boeing Chinook helicopters in the U.S. invasion of Somalia in 2006. Tom Pickering, former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, is senior vice president for International Relations and a member of the Boeing Executive Council since January 2001. Pickering played a decisive role in the Clinton Administration overthrow of Rwanda (1990-1994) and Congo (1996-1997). He is a leading advocate for the “Save Darfur” propaganda. He is also a member of the Africa Society of the National Summit on Africa along with Ed Royce (R-CA), former U.S. Senator Nancy Kassebaum Baker (R-KS), Donald Payne (D-NJ), and Andrew Young.

While the New York Times reported in December 2006 that the Ethiopian invasion of Somalia began in late December, military involvement of U.S. covert forces had been ongoing, and was heightened significantly in the early spring of 2006 when the U.S. Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency openly complained about cross purposes in Somalia. Private military companies were all over Somalia, as were known international arms syndicates, including of course the criminal networks of John Bredenkamp, one of Britain’s fifty richest tycoons and one of the primary financial backers behind the rise and fall of Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe.

John Bredenkamp reportedly acquired three SRAM missiles with nuclear warheads jettisoned in shallow water off the coast of Somalia by a U.S.A.F. B-52 that soon after crashed into the Indian Ocean near the U.S. military base on the island of Diego Garcia. The U.S. invasion of Somalia is believed to have been partly an aborted attempt to recover the lost nukes—called “broken arrows” in Pentagon-speak. While the story of the dumped nukes “lost” by Dick Cheney has received some attention, no one has publicly identified John Bredenkamp as the likely weapons dealer involved.[43]


The war in Somalia dates back to deep U.S. involvement in the 1980’s, when major oil concessions were awarded to four Western multinational petroleum giants: Conoco, Amoco, Chevron and Philips petroleum. The infusion of Western “AID” provoked destabilization in Somalia, leading to the U.S. military invasion that culminated in the October 3, 1993, mission where 18 U.S. Special Operations Forces were killed when their Blackhawk helicopter was shot down over the capital city, Mogadishu.[44]

The mythology of U.S. involvement was indelibly inscribed in the popular consciousness through the Hollywood/Pentagon film Blackhawk Down, a film that has played all over the world even while a covert U.S. war in Somalia has continued.[45]

Blackhawk helicopters are produced by United Technologies Corporation (UTC), which counts among its directors General Richard B. Myers. General Alexander Haig was director and senior adviser to UTC for years, and his consulting firm, Worldwide Associates, counts UTC and Boeing as clients. Haig was also on the board of MGM, producers of the fictional film Hotel Rwanda, that peddles the establishment Rwanda narrative.

Hollywood's subordination to Pentagon interests involves moviemakers gaining access to expensive weaponry while the military basks in an heroic glow that buffs its image and boosts recruitment.[46] About forty of the actors who were portraying Special Operations Rangers in Blackhawk Down were sent to Fort Benning (Georgia)—home of the School of the Americas, the premier U.S. torture and terror academy—to attend courses in becoming Special Forces. All “Black Hawks” used during the filming were from the 16th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR), and most of the pilots in the film were involved in the actual battle.[47] At least hundreds—some accounts indicate thousands—of Somali people died during the two days of fighting on October 3-4, 1993.

Part of the consistent propaganda on Africa is that “the U.S. does not want to get involved and potentially face another Somalia.” But the U.S. pullout of Somalia occurred in perfect synchronicity with the heightened military involvement in Rwanda (1994).

U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) did not cease Special Ops deployments in Somalia with the U.S. withdrawal, and covert operations have proceeded on and off, with heightened activity through the late 1990’s. Numerous private military companies have received contracts to work in Somalia. In 2005 the U.S.-based Top Cat Marine Security won a $50 million dollar contract to “fight piracy, theft of natural resources and terrorism within Somali borders and its territorial waters.” The contract, awarded by Somali President Abdullahi Yusuf’s transitional federal government—founded with UN backing in 2004—includes Special Forces training and helicopter reconnaissance.[48]

The private military companies Select Armor—based in Virginia—and ATS Worldwide—based in Florida—were all over Somalia by June 2006, if not much sooner.[49] Select Armor started its operation planning in Kampala, Uganda, with Ugandan government pledges of weapons and logistics support. ATS uses former British and U.S. Special Forces. Officials of the U.S and British governments, the CIA and MI-6, were reportedly informed and the operation was orchestrated by clandestine elite interests that can dictate U.S. Department of Defense involvement. While the involvement breached United Nations embargoes on Somalia, top UN officials were reported involved.[50]

The Pentagon confirmed in November 2006 that SOCOM forces were in Somalia as of October “providing military advice to Ethiopian and Somali forces on the ground.” The U.S. Navy moved “additional forces” into waters off the Somali coast, where the Pentagon said they “conducted security missions, monitoring maritime traffic and intercepting and interrogating crew on suspicious ships.” These included the USS Ramage guided missile destroyer, the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower aircraft carrier, the USS Bunker Hill and USS Anzio guided missile cruisers, and the USS Ashland amphibious landing ship.[51] On June 2, 2007, a U.S. Navy destroyer shelled northern Somalia. Somali media reported that the strikes destroyed farms, flattened hilltops and killed or injured an unknown number of villagers.[52]

The British Navy’s newest warship HMS Bulwark was also stationed off the Somali coast in early 2006. The HMS Bulwark deployed to the Indian Ocean on 9 January 2006 for the first live operation of this “unique Commando Assault ship” (as it is described by the British Navy).[53]

However, sources in Kenya and Eritrea reported “snatch and grab” terrorist operations involving massacres and torture that were run by SOCOM forces inside Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. There are at least 52,000 U.S. special operations forces on active duty and reserve military worldwide, including SEALs, Green Berets and commando-style troops from the 10th Mountain Division and others.

At least three U.S. Navy guided missile destroyers were operating off Somalia in October and November 2007. The U.S.S. Porter, U.S.S. Arleigh Burke and U.S.S. James E. Williams were operating—sinking “pirate ships” and “terrorist” vessels—as part of the Combined Maritime Forces Task Force headquartered in Bahrain.[54]

The U.S. Department of Defense Central Command (CENTCOM) and European Command (EUCOM) initiated the “Golden Spear” anti-terrorism (sic) program in 2000 to “address issues of terrorism, humanitarian crises, natural disasters, drug trafficking and refugees in the Greater Horn of Africa.” The “Golden Spear” member countries include Ethiopia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Jordan, Seychelles, Comoros, Egypt, Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. "Golden Spear" military meetings occurred in Ethiopia, Seychelles and Tampa, Florida. Amongst the many military officials attending a 2005 “Golden Spear” meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, were General Marcel Gatsinzi, Rwanda Minister of Defense, and Uganda’s Lt. General Moses Ali. USCENTCOM representatives from Canada and Australia also attended. There were forty-five delegates in attendance from the United States: forty-two U.S. military commanders, special agents, defense attachés or government and security officials, and three executives from Northrup Grumman aerospace and defense corporation.[54a]

The establishment narrative is that Ethiopia invaded Somalia to displace Al-Qaeda terrorists and check the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, both of which are propaganda themes that misrepresent the reality of U.S. and allied military interventions.

Ethiopia is considered an essential partner of the U.S. in its “War on Terrorism”, and Ethiopian bases have been used for attacks on Somalia. In 2003, the U.S. Army’s 10th Mountain Division (SOCOM) completed a three-month program to train an Ethiopian army division in “counter-terrorism tactics”—code language for covert operations. Operations are coordinated through the Combined Joint Task Forces-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) base in Djibouti. In January 2004, SOCOM forces from the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment replaced the 10th Mountain Division forces at a new base “Camp United” established at Hurso, northwest of Dire Dawa, near the border with Somalia. Since 2003, under the U.S. State Department-sponsored Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program, CJTF-HOA provided instruction to thousands of Ethiopian soldiers at a base in Legedadi. CJTF-HOA forces from the U.S Army's 478th Civil Affairs Battalion also operated in Ethiopia (Somalia) in and around Dire Dawa, Galadi and Dolo Odo, among other areas.[55]

Recent CJTF-HOA training exercises in Djibouti involved U.S. and French Special Forces at an undisclosed French Special Operations base in Djibouti. The Pentagon’s CJTF-HOA program has operated out of a Camp Lemonier, in Djibouti, since at least 2001. The October 22, 2007 joint exercises involved French naval Special Forces and the U.S. Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 464. According to the CJTF-HOA report, “[t]he Marines and Sailors are a part of the CJTF-HOA mission involving more than 1,800 U.S. and coalition forces serving in the operational effort to prevent conflict, promote regional stability, and protect coalition interest in order to prevail against extremism.”[55a]

Female service members from the U.S. CJTF-HOA also participated in joint Yemen-U.S. exercises educating some 40 Yemeni herdswomen how to inoculate goats.[55b] As part of a community relations event, U.S. Central Command Air Forces Expeditionary Band and Marines from the 3rd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion entertained and handed out school supplies, toys and shoes to local villagers Oct. 9 at Damerjog, Djibouti.[55c]

Following the U.S.-backed Ethiopian invasion of Somalia, sources in Kenya and Eritrea have consistently reported “snatch and grab” terrorist operations involving massacres and torture that were run by SOCOM forces inside Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. This is not some veterinary program involving U.S. Special Forces in inoculation programs for nomadic herdswomen and their goats.

There are at least 52,000 U.S. special operations forces on active duty and reserve military worldwide, including SEALs, Green Berets and commando-style troops from the 10th Mountain Division and others.

Ethiopia seeks to control Somalia to gain access to a much-needed deepwater seaport. Ethiopia’s oil concessions are contiguous with the oil reserves in Sudan, Somalia, Kenya and Yemen. Hunt Oil, the Chinese National Petroleum Company and many others are active in Ethiopia.[56] Hunt's $18-million refinery across the waters in Yemen was officially dedicated by then U.S. Vice-President G.H.W. Bush in April, 1986. In remarks during the event, Bush emphasized the critical value of supporting U.S. corporate efforts to develop and safeguard potential oil reserves in the region.[57]

The U.S. military used and uses Ethiopian air bases modernized by infusions of millions of dollars of “AID” funds to launch attacks against Somalia. Ethiopia now has the largest standing army on the continent and this was achieved through the conversion of millions of dollars in “AID” to weapons and militarization; even “debt forgiveness”—where foreign “debt” was canceled—benefited the militarization of Ethiopia, and the same occurred in Uganda.[58] U.S. spy satellites were used to provide intelligence to Ethiopian troops as they swept across the Oganden basin and Somalia. Presidents Bush and Zenawi both denied that the invasion was coordinated and well planned, and both denied the involvement of the U.S.

The Ethiopian government retained former U.S. Republican house majority leader Dick Armey as a lobbyist in Washington to whitewash the Ethiopian regimes’ crimes.[59]


The Ogaden, Oromo and Anuak regions of Ethiopia have seen massive military occupation and state repression. The Ethiopian government of Meles Zenawi has perpetrated mass starvation and scorched earth policy in the region. There has been very little international media coverage and most is favorable to the Zenawi regime or pressing the upside-down stories about “relief” and “starvation” that serve the Western “humanitarian” business sector. The Ogaden basin is a bloodbath today. Applying the same legal standards as in Darfur, all three Ethiopian regions qualify as ongoing genocides against indigenous people.[60] Failure to apply the genocide standards constitutes genocide denial.

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1778 (2007) on 25 September 2007 established the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT). According to the UN’s October 2007 Expression Of Interest, “[i]n it’s Presidential Statement of 30 April 2007, the Security Council requested the Secretary General to ‘immediately begin appropriate contingency planning for a United Nations mission to Somalia’. At this early stage it is planned to have a UN logistics base at Mombassa, Kenya, to support the main supply line from Mombassa to Kismayo, Mogadishu and Hobyo, which will serve as secondary logistics bases in Somalia. At this early stage the number and location of these sites is unknown, but it is envisaged that approximately 24,000 personnel may be required.”

Ethiopia’s war in Somalia has taxed the government drawing widespread criticism. The U.S. is pressing for an African Union mission as a proxy force to replace the Ethiopian troops and promote U.S. interests. Mombasa, Kenya, is a U.S. military port. The U.S. war in Somalia is ongoing. More than 100 U.S. military “trainers” supervised “combat training” of two Burundian “African Union” battalions (1700 troops) in Bujumbura, Burundi, in advance of their deployment in Somalia expected in November 2007. French military also provided training, while the U.S. and France both are providing logistical and telecommunications support. Burundian troops are also in Darfur.[61] On November 28, 2004, the Bush White House issued a document announcing a cooperative agreement with Burundi, Guyana and Liberia preventing the International Criminal Court from proceeding against U.S. personnel operating in these countries.[62]

In March 2007 the Pentagon deployed an additional 150 SOCOM Forces in Uganda. The troops were part of the Combined Joint Task Force Horn-of-Africa, an “anti-terrorist naval force” deployed around the Horn of Africa with support points in Bahrain and Djibouti. Ugandan sources divulged that the SOCOM troops would be dispersed “around the country” to “support UPDF troops” and “provide support to distribute humanitarian aid.” It was openly reported that the SOCOM are “possibly training the South Sudanese army, which has just signed an agreement for this with its Ugandan counterpart, strengthening Ugandan capacity to fight terrorism.” The U.S. military has also modernized the old Entebbe airport for UPDF operations, and the Entebbe airport supports a small but permanent U.S. military contingent.[63]

It is believed that U.S. SOCOM troops are operating in blood-drenched Eastern Congo. Ugandan opposition sources have reported that SOCOM forces in UPDF uniforms have joined the more than 2000 Pentagon-trained UPDF forces sent by Museveni to Somalia. The UPDF troops operating in Somalia behind a “peacekeeping” propaganda front have been accused of widespread atrocities. More than 1000 people die daily in Eastern Congo where fighting since 1996 has claimed at least 7 million lives. The Democratic Republic of Congo has seen multiple genocide campaigns, and multiple genocide denials are ongoing.

SOCOM forces have been openly reported in Niger, where operations are billed as “humanitarian” and “human rights” training of Nigerien troops.[64] But the insurgency and “rebellion” by the Tuareg and Toubou nomads has always been about uranium and depopulation: Canadian and Chinese companies have recently gotten involved, but Esso (Exxon), Japanese and French corporations were exploiting the Agadez and Air regions in the 1970’s and 1980’s (at least), dumping radioactive sickness and social devastation on another indigenous population.[65] Niger is the poorest country in the world. Yet another genocide?

Exxon, Elf and Hunt Oil are in Niger for oil. Barrick Gold is also in Niger, and in Guniea, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Madagascar and Mali; through their partnership with Anglo-Ashanti, Barrick is responsible for atrocities and plunder in eastern Congo. Directors of the G.H.W. Bush-connected Barrick Gold include former U.S. Senator Howard Baker (R-TN), whose wife, Nancy Kassebaum Baker, has been an outspoken advocate for immediate action on Darfur.

“I was in the Senate at the time of Rwanda,” said Kassebaum-Baker in a speech in 2006 where Darfur was discussed . Kassebaum-Baker served as chairwoman of the Foreign Relations Committee's Subcommittee on African Affairs. “We were all aghast at what was taking place there [Rwanda], but I must say no one really knew what to do about it,” Kassebaum-Baker said.[66]

The Bakers are on the advisory board for the nationalist think-tank Partnership for a Secure America—another policy-formulating-perception-management-force behind the “Save Darfur” movement—along with a stellar cast of corporate executives involved in war and plunder in Africa.[67] Most notable of these are Frank G. Wisner, Richard Holbrooke, Anthony Lake, Thomas Pickering, Carla Hills and Sam Nunn. Wisner was also on the National Security Council under Clinton, along with the International Crisis Group (ICG) Special Advisor and ENOUGH co-chair John Prendergast. Wisner’s co-directors of the American International Group include: Marshall Cohen, a director of the Bush-connected Barrick Gold Corporation; Clinton Cabinet members William Cohen and Richard Holbrooke; and Carla Hills, NAFTA negotiator and director of Chevron-Texaco and the ICG. Partnership for a Secure America advisory board members Zbigniew Brzezinski, Pickering, Hills, and Kassebaum-Baker are all on the Board of Trustees for the ICG—International Crisis Group—the leading flak organization pressing the “Save Darfur” and Lord’s Resistance Army (Uganda) narratives.

George Soros founded the International Crisis Group in 1995 and serves on the ICG executive committee, another who’s who of establishment people entrenched in the production of militant establishment narratives and structural violence. The Crisis Group think-tank is funded by Soros’ philanthropy think-tank the Open Society Institute, and it pushes the rhetoric of “peace” and “democracy” through hegemonic policy instruments advocating direct “humanitarian” [read: military] intervention. The Crisis Group executives have numerous interlocking ties with the International Rescue Committee, a Kissinger-connected flak organization. Other Crisis Group executives include Zbigniew Brzezinski, Wesley K. Clark (who led the NATO deconstructive bombing of Yugoslavia), and Joanne Leedom-Ackerman—a director of Human Rights Watch.

George Soros is also an emeritus director of Refugees International, another “humanitarian” NGO behind the massive suffering in Africa. Other Refugees International directors emeritus include Judy Mayotte, an executive boardmember of the International Rescue Committee, Frank G. Wisner, and Richard Holbrooke. The current president of Refugees International is Kenneth H. Bacon, who, prior to his appointment in 2001, had worked for seven years as assistant secretary for public affairs at the U.S Department of Defense. Beyond the global presence of RI in hot spots like Afghanistan and Iraq are their permanent missions in Somalia, Central Africa Republic, Rwanda, Uganda, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Ethiopia, Somalia, Chad, South Sudan and Darfur. Refugees International profited from the RPF/A forced exodus of refugees from Rwanda in 1994, and their involvement in the international war crimes behind the destruction of the Hutu refugee camps in Eastern Zaire, shelled by the RPF/A in 1996 as the U.S. opened its war there, or the subsequent genocidal massacres of Hutus, have never been investigated.

Refugees International joined the Save Darfur Coalition in April to rally against the genocide in Darfur. According to the RI Annual report for 2006, “[o]ur supporters joined the tens of thousands of human rights activists, movie stars, athletes and politicians who converged on the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC, to show the world that we will not stand idly by while genocide unfolds.”


The Darfur region of western Sudan has been a hotbed of clandestine activities, gunrunning and indiscriminate violence for decades. The Cold War era saw countless insurgencies launched from the remote deserts of Darfur. Throughout the 1990’s factions allied with or against Chad, Uganda, Ethiopia, Congo, Libya, Eritrea and the Central African Republic, operated from bases in Darfur, and it was a regular landing strip for foreign military transport planes of mysterious origin.

In 1990, Chad’s President Idriss Déby launched a military blitzkrieg from Darfur and overthrew President Hissan Habre; Déby then allied with his own tribe against the Sudan government. Sudanese rebels today have bases in Chad, and Chadian rebels have bases in Darfur, with Khartoum’s backing. When the regime of Ange-Félix Patassé collapsed in the Central African Republic in March 2003, soldiers fled to Darfur with their military equipment. Khartoum supported the West Nile Bank Front, a rebel army operating against Uganda from Eastern Congo, commanded by Taban Amin, the son of the infamous Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, who heads Uganda’s dreaded Internal Security Organization.

France is deeply involved in covert operations and genocide in Africa. Central Africa Republic (C.A.R.), run by General François Bozizé, is a major base of French defense and intelligence operations linked to security regimes in the bloody dictatorships of Republic of Congo, Togo, Cameroon and Gabon, and France backs guerilla groups committing atrocities in Chad, Sudan, DR-Congo, Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi. C.A.R. is also a conduit for blood diamonds, and the back-up for France’s nuclear policy, today heavily reliant on uranium exploitation in Niger: C.A.R. reportedly has massive uranium reserves. Like oil-cursed Equatorial Guinea, C.A.R. is also a bloodbath, completely off the international media screen.[68]

Darfur is another epicenter of the modern-day international geopolitical scramble for Africa’s resources. Conflict in Darfur escalated in 2003 in parallel with negotiations “ending” the south Sudan war. The U.S.-backed insurgency by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), the guerilla force that fought the northern Khartoum government for 20 years, shifted to Darfur, even as the G.W. Bush government allied with Khartoum in the U.S. led “War on Terrorism.” The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)—one of some twenty-seven rebel factions mushrooming in Darfur—is allied with the SPLA and supported from Uganda. Andrew Natsios, former USAID chief and now U.S. envoy to Sudan, said on October 6, 2007, that the atmosphere between the governments of north and south Sudan “had become poisonous.” This is no surprise given the magnitude of the resource war in Sudan and the involvement of international interests, but the investigation should center on the involvement and activities of USAID officials Andrew Natsios, Roger Winter and Jendayi Frazer.

Roger Winter, USAID chief in Khartoum today, is directly linked to the Rwandan Patriotic Front/Army and U.S. military campaign that destabilized Rwanda and decapitated the leadership of Rwanda and Burundi. USAID’s affiliations with the Department of Defense are now openly advertised with the propaganda peddling AFRICOM—the Pentagon’s new Africa Command. AFRICOM combines U.S. CENTCOM, PACIFICOM and EUCOM operations in Africa; it is nothing new, merely the consolidation and expansion of widespread and ongoing involvement.[69]

Darfur is reported to have the fourth largest copper and third largest uranium deposits in the world.[70] Darfur produces two-thirds of the world’s best quality gum Arabic—a major ingredient in Coke and Pepsi. Contiguous petroleum reserves are driving warfare from the Red Sea, through Darfur, to the Great Lakes of Central Africa. Private military companies operate alongside petroleum contractors and “humanitarian” agencies. Sudan is China’s fourth biggest supplier of imported oil, and U.S. companies controlling the pipelines in Chad and Uganda seek to displace China through the U.S. military alliance with “frontline” states hostile to Sudan: Uganda, Chad and Ethiopia.

There are claims in the Arab community that Israel provides military training to Darfur rebels from bases in Eritrea, but insiders in Eritrea dispute this. Israel has a deep history of intelligence and military relations with both Eritrea and Ethiopia, and Israel reportedly has a naval and air base on Eritrea’s Dahlak and Fatma islands, from which German-made Dolphin-class submarines patrol the Red Sea with long-range nuclear cruise missiles.[71] Eritrea reportedly serves as Israel’s outpost for spying on enemies like Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Sudan.[72]

'Africa Research Bulletin' in 1998 reported an Israeli base in Eritrea’s Mahal Agar Mountains.[73] They also reported a communications listening station and that Mossad, the Israeli secret service, “is operating a string of previously top secret outposts in the Horn of Africa” used to monitor hostile states and service Israeli submarines operating in the area.[72a]

One source in Eritrea claims that reports about Dahlak Island and Israeli training bases are “old, dried-up bullshit. No foreign bases in Eritrea, not now, not ever, especially Israel. We have normal relations with Israel, but even trade matters have decreased dramatically. The charges of a base in Dahlak are old, going back over ten years. There are remnants of an old U.S., then soviet base in Dahlak, but Dahlak these days is a marine preserve."[72b]

An intelligence insider in Washington D.C. reports that a journalist who wrote an article for Vanity Fair on the Israeli subs with nuclear cruise missiles had confirmed the base in Dahlak; the journalist wrote for Jane’s Intelligence Weekly, “so he had good sources.” The insider reports that Vanity Fair killed the story so as not to upset its Jewish advertisers, Bergdorf-Goodman and Saks.[72c]

In May 2003, the Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) hosted an Eritrean delegation aboard the CJTF-HOA amphibious Joint Command ship, the U.S.S. Mount Whitney. The Eritrean delegation included President Asaias Afwerki, Minister of Defense, Gen. Sebhat Ephraim, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ali Said Abdell, top commanders of Eritrean ground, naval and air forces, and commanders of operational zones from across the country. The CJTF-HOA’s Major General John F. Sattler and Isaias Afwerki initially met in Asmara in early January of this year, following previous visits to Eritrea by the commander of U.S. Central Command, Gen. Tommy Franks in March 2002, and U.S. Secretary of Defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld, in December 2002. The following day, Maj. Gen. Sattler and members of the CJTF-HOA staff were hosted ashore by General Sebhat Ephraim for visits to Massawa Naval Base and Dahlak Island, as well as tours of Beka and Hawakil islands.[72d]

Israel has clearly strengthened ties with the regime in Chad, from which more weapons and troops penetrate Darfur. The refugee camps have become increasingly militarized. There are reports that Israeli and U.S. military and intelligence operate from within refugee camps in Darfur. Israel is all over the Sahara, from Burkina Faso to Ethiopia and Uganda. Israel’s clandestine actions are partly funded by Israeli-American diamond magnates involved in Angola, Sierra Leone, C.A.R. and Congo, especially Dan Gertler (G.W. Bush’s unofficial Ambassador to Congo), Beny Steinmetz, Nir Livnat, Lev Leviev and Maurice Tempelsman.[74]

African Union (AU) forces in Darfur include Nigerian and Rwandan troops responsible for atrocities in their own countries. Ethiopia has committed 5000 troops for a UN force in Darfur. AU troops receive military-logistic support from NATO, and are widely hated. Early in October 2007, SLA rebels attacked an AU base killing ten troops. In a subsequent editorial sympathetic to rebel factions Smith College English professor Eric Reeves espoused the tired rhetoric of “Khartoum’s genocidal counter-insurgency war in Darfur,” a position counterproductive to any peaceful settlement.[75] To minimize the damage this rebel attack has done to their credibility, Reeves and other “Save Darfur” advocates cast doubt about the rebels’ identities and mischaracterized the SLA attackers as “rogue commanders.” However, there is near unanimous agreement, internationally, that rebels are “out of control,” committing widespread rape and plundering with impunity, just as the SPLA did in South Sudan for over a decade.

Debunking the claims of a “genocide against blacks” or an “Islamic holy-war” against Christians, Darfur’s Arab and black African tribes have intermarried for centuries, and nearly everyone is Muslim. The “Save Darfur” campaign is deeply aligned with Jewish and Christian faith-based organizations in the United States, Canada, Europe and Israel. These groups have relentlessly campaigned for Western military action, demonizing both Sudan and China, but they have never addressed Western military involvement—backing factions on all sides.

Christian and Jewish involvement in the “Save Darfur” campaign centers on a long-running but deeply manipulative narrative about slavery and genocide in South Sudan. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum furthered the establishment narrative about Darfur in keeping with the genocide theme; no one ever examines the interests behind the Holocaust Memorial Museum (e.g., Bob Dole). It is merely some apolitical institution with the championing of supposed “universal” human rights of all people everywhere as its raison d’etre. The new political and propaganda doctrine that uses “genocide” as a political tool is morally ambiguous; it attacks the crimes of some and passes over the crimes of others. It uses as its overriding principle the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its complementary covenants and proclamations. On the one hand, however, this involves genocide inflation, and on the other hand, genocide denial. But the USA—with good Christian and Jewish foot soldiers—is always the final arbitrator: global cop, judge, jury, executioner, surgeon and savior, all in one.

Christian organizations involved in Sudan for years include Servant’s Heart and Christian Solidarity International. On Servant’s Heart’s “Board of Reference” is British Baroness Caroline Cox, who is also closely affiliated with Christian Solidarity International (CSI)—one of the main Christian allies of the SPLM/A war in southern Sudan. The propaganda system advocates in favor of the “rebels” in Darfur using a handful of techniques developed in their propaganda campaign behind the “rebels” in South Sudan. Rebels are supported partly by never mentioning them, partly by decrying abuses against them, partly by providing sympathetic one-sided accounts of Khartoum government attacks, and partly by defending their excesses if and when—infrequently—the rebel abuses come to light.[76]

Christian Solidarity International (CSI) in 2006 issued press releases claiming that the Lebanese organization Hezbollah “is using Christian villages to shield its military operations in violation of international law.” [77] These reports appear to be fabrications to begin with, and the CSI accusation a projection of their own involvement with the SPLA in South Sudan, where the SPLA for over a decade used the civilian population as human shields, used the Western AID apparatus (Operation Lifeline Sudan) as cover for military support, and used food as a weapon. If Hezbollah did this during the recent U.S.-Israeli invasion they [Hezbollah] certainly learned it by studying SPLA (CSI) tactics in Sudan. Thus we have twisted triple-standards where the establishment propaganda accuses Hezbollah of violating international law, but the SPLM/A—and the “rebel” groups in Darfur—while doing exactly the same thing, are never anything but poor, defenseless Christians under attack in a “genocidal counter-insurgency” run out of the Khartoum government.[78]

Who are the rebels in Darfur? Where do they get new uniforms and modern weapons? With the establishment propaganda on Rwanda and the invading Rwanda Patriotic Front/Army from 1990-1994, all abuses were covered up, the government of Juvenal Habyarimana was blamed for everything, and the “rebels”—backed by Washington, partnered with the Pentagon—were never exposed for atrocities and scorched earth attacks. It was the same with the establishment propaganda that covered for the SPLA: their role in committing and provoking atrocities in South Sudan from 1983 to 2003 has been greatly misrepresented and mischaracterized by virtually every popular source cited in the western press. No one has pressed this line more than Dr. Eric Reeves, the Smith College English professor and most widely cited “expert” behind the establishment narrative to “Save Darfur.”[79]

There is growing dissent within the “Save Darfur” movement as more supporters question its motivations and links to Israel. “Save Darfur” leaders have been replaced after complaints surfaced about expenditures of funds. Many rebel leaders reportedly receive tens of thousands of dollars monthly, and rebels emboldened by the “Save Darfur” movement commit crimes with impunity. There is a growing demand to probe the accounts of “Save Darfur” to find out how the tens of millions collected are being spent due to allegations of arms-deals and bribery—rebel leaders provided with five-star hotel accommodations, prostitutes and sex parties.[80]

The French “humanitarian” charity NGO Zoe’s Ark (L’Arche de Zoé), involved in Chad and Darfur, is under investigation by the United Nations, France and Chad for trafficking in black children in the widely under-reported “L'Arche de Zoé affair.” Chadian President Idriss Déby is under attack for alleging “pedophilia” and “organ trafficking” and for arresting seventeen Europeans intercepted at an airport in Chad attempting to depart to France with 103 “Darfur orphans” aged six to ten. The Zoe’s Ark project began fundraising April 28, 2007 to “evacuate 10,000 orphans facing certain death” to France and the United States. Some 300 European’s paid 2000 Euros ($3,450) each as “donations” toward logistics costs to receive an orphan. UNHCR determined the children “were living with their families in communities”—they were neither from Darfur nor were they orphans—and their health was not a serious concern.[81] The NGO was reportedly provided logistical support by the French military, and they had made numerous trips to villages on the Darfur border offering enticements and taking children.[82] Outraged Chadians on the border with Sudan had already been questioning the motives of scores of foreign aid groups that work with Darfur refugees.[83] The United Nations and other relief organizations initially denied all knowledge of the Zoe’s Ark NGO, but the NGO was registered as an international charity with the UN Mission in Sudan. The Zoe’s Ark website ( lists 800,000 children “in mortal danger today who must be saved now!”

Humanitarian relief is an industry, with corporate directors, big salaries, career advancement, permanent infrastructure in white economies, but mobile, structurally nebulous projects in black countries, that entrench structural violence and perpetuate dependence and suffering. Nancy Kassebaum-Baker, the outspoken advocate for Congo and Darfur, is also a Director Emerita for the International Medical Corps (IMC), a “humanitarian” NGO with operations in Darfur, South Sudan, Central Africa Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia and Sierre Leone—all the “problem” countries involved in transcontinental warfare and then some—and 14 countries outside Africa, including the U.S.-occupied Iraq and Afghanistan. Total revenue to IMC in 2005 was $101,727,119.

Amongst the (many) large IMC donors for 2005 and 2006 were numerous Christian and Jewish organizations, charities and missionary affiliates, the Christian right organization euphemistically named Bread for the World (Bob Dole, Donald Payne, David Beckman, Leon Panetta links), and the American Jewish World Service, Pfizer, BP, American Friends Service Committee, Chevron, Trammel Crow (affiliated with Barrick Gold directors), Coca Cola, World Food Program (Bob Dole link), USAID, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the U.S. Department of Defense.

CARE is one of the biggest organizations, and CARE receives funding from Lockheed Martin. How many big international AID and charity NGOs operate in Africa?

The failure of the international community to respond to the 1988 famine in Sudan led to the creation of the United Nations Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a cross-border emergency relief program. By the mid 1990’s Operation Lifeline Sudan had achieved a major foothold throughout south Sudan, with a consortium of United Nations agencies and some 60 international “relief” agencies all vying for a piece of the billion dollars a year pie, and thousands of humanitarian foot soldiers receiving lucrative salaries. While OLS may be a “humanitarian” operation, it is also a United Nations-backed military operation with massive infrastructure projected from Nairobi, Kenya, into South Sudan. OLS operated formally until at least 2005, and much of the OLS apparatus and operational procedure has remained through 2007.[84] This is an example of managed inequality which benefits white economies and perpetuate structural violence.

The involvement of private military companies (PMCs) in “humanitarian” interventions is widespread, kept hidden by the corporate media, or billed as universally “neutral” and positive, in the interests of humanity, fraternity, peace and brotherhood, the very slogans that the United Nations was founded on. At a U.S. Congressional Hearing in 2004, House Africa Subcommittee Chairman Ed Royce (R-CA) discussed the increasing role of private military companies in African “peacekeeping.” [85] PMC’s have been hired by the U.S. government to clear [sic] landmines in Djibouti and Angola, the involvement of mercenary companies is continental. Military Professional Resources Incorporated, out of Virginia, was just one mercenary firm of many involved in the U.S. invasion of Congo.[86]

PMCs like Medical Support Solutions (MSS), which works with African Union (AU) monitoring forces to prepare bases and set up logistics systems in Darfur, operate under upside-down euphemistic names where peace equals war equals peacekeeping as part of the umbrella smokescreen International Peace Operations Association. The IPOA board of directors (2005-2006) includes former SOCOM forces with extensive tours-of-duty with, for example, Blackwater, ArmorGroup, PAE, or HART Security with UN or AU “peacekeeping” missions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, Sierre Leone and Darfur. The IPOA has produced position papers and proposals lobbying for $100-200 million private mercenary contracts in DRC, Somalia and Darfur, amongst others, for ICI of Oregon, AirScan International, Task International, PAE and MPRI.[87] The IPOA Concept Paper Support Operation to the Darfur Region of Sudan (2004) proposed private military companies involvement on the frontlines in Darfur and Chad for contracts of $2-4 million per month.[88]

ICI of Oregon has been operating in Darfur on U.S. government grants. According to their web site, U.S. Public Law 106-426 appropriated up to $10 million of funds to provide assistance to the National Democratic Alliance of Sudan (NDA), an umbrella organization of opposition groups opposed to the Islamic regime in Khartoum.[89] Support of the opposition of the Government of Sudan, even with “non-lethal” materials, given the massive warfare in Darfur, constitutes support of war in Sudan.

It is clear that the violence is Africa’s hotspots has “spiraled out of control” by design: chaos and destabilization are provoked by international actors, intelligence operatives, SOCOM forces and PMCs, who then leverage the “need” for further Private Military Corporate involvement. These agents operate with zero accountability and zero transparency.[90] Diplomats, state department officials, United Nations functionaries and their highly paid lackeys stand around wringing their hands declaring: “What is to be done?” With PMCs pressing to secure $100-200 million contracts to “support” MONUC, it is no wonder that Africa is dealing with the spectre of continental genocide.

“Save Darfur” is today the rallying cry for a broad coalition of special interests. Advocacy groups—from the local Massachusetts Congregation B’Nai Israel chapter to the International Crises Group and USAID—have fueled the conflict through a relentless, but selective, public relations campaign that disingenuously serves a narrow policy agenda. These interests offer no opportunity for corrective analyses, but stubbornly press their agenda, and they are widely criticized for inflaming tensions in Darfur. This is what we might call Darfurism.

The recent Lockheed Martin contract with the United Nations illustrates the latest stage in the transformation of international conflict whereby military-industrial giants are openly engaged, rather than clandestinely, as has been previously the case. This development parallels the rise of Darfurism— a mass movement in the West designed to channel popular sympathy and agitate people to act on a cause they know nothing about, but think they do. Darfurism is a pathological mix of fear, patriotism, social immaturity, opportunism and unconsciousness, akin to fascism. Under the current climate of apathy, fear and public opinion, anything goes, and warfare involves humanitarian agencies as active players in the mix. Like the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum they are seen as neutral, described as apolitical, but nothing could be further from the truth.

The United Nations and African Union serve as pseudo-privatized military forces backing a hegemonic, corporate, political and economic agenda. Someone who produces both the danger and, at a price, the shield against it is a racketeer.[91] The future has arrived, and it uses human rights institutions, the label of genocide and accusations of atrocities, and the ever-expanding international AID and charity industry—operating out of pure profit motives—as pivotal elements in the Western portfolio of soft and hard weapons used to further the prerogatives of Empire and clear the land for absolute corporate exploitation. ~

Keith Harmon Snow— www.allthingspass,com —is an independent human rights investigator and war correspondent who worked with Survivors Rights International (2005-2006), Genocide Watch (2005-2006) and the United Nations (2006) to document and expose genocide and crimes against humanity in Sudan and Ethiopia. In January 2006, he produced a report on genocide in Ethiopia, co-authored with an international humanitarian law and genocide expert now working for the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal on Yugoslavia. He released this report without authorization in December 2006 because the United Nations buried the report and remained silent about the genocide and the Ethiopian government’s role in it. He has worked in 17 countries in Africa, heavily focused on the Great Lakes region, and he recently worked in Afghanistan.

More information:


CEGUN: Campaign to Stop Genocide in Uganda Now





1 Maurice Tempelsman chairs the International Advisory Council at the Harvard AIDS Institute (HAI) of the School of Public Health; his involvement in covert actions and interventions flags this program as cover for clandestine biowarfare. HAI partners with the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (USMHRP), a program whose said purpose is to develop vaccines and AIDS prevention for U.S. Military servicemen: .


3 Dulue Mbachu, “Africa’s Unfolding Desert War,” ISN Security Watch, July 11, 2007.

4 Tourist Killings in Buhoma,” Gorilla Journal, June 18, 1999 .

5 See the 1885 map before partition and after .

6 Abu Iskandar as-Sudani, “Darfur: The New American French Protectorate,” translated by Muhammad Abu Nasr from Al-Hadaf, Damascus, No.1365, May 2005, pp. 22-25.

7 Pratap Chatterjee, “Darfur Diplomacy: Enter the Contractors,” CorpWatch, 21 October 2004, < >.


9 .

10 Statistics generated by United Nations bodies and reported by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: .

11 See: National Oil Corporation of Kenya: ; and Beicip-Franlab .

12 “Lundin Petroleum Signs Production-sharing Contract with Kenya,” Alexander’s Gas & Oil Connections, June 10, 2007, .

13 See: Livelihoods & Vulnerabilities Study Gambella Region of Ethiopia, UNICEF, January 2006.

14 See: Michael Maren, The Road To Hell: The Ravaging Affects of Foreign Aid and International Charity, 1996.

15 From the BSP web site: “As biometrics becomes an increasingly important component of physical and logical security systems there is a need for an authoritative and regularly updated reference and data base on virtually all aspects of biometrics and identity assurance.” .

16 See, e.g., Uprooted and Forgotten: Impunity and Human Rights Abuses in Northern Uganda, Human Rights Watch, Vol. 17, No. 12a, September 2005.

17 David M. Rosen, “Child Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood,” American Anthropologist, Vol. 109, Issue 2, 2007, p: 299.

18 See: Keith Harmon Snow, “A People’s History of Congo’s Jean-Pierre Bemba,” Toward Freedom, September 18, 2007; and Effacer le Tableau: Rapport de la mission internationale de recherche sur les crimes commis, en violation du droit international, contre les Pygmées bambuti dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo, Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 1904584217, July 2004.

19 Private interviews, eyewitnesses, October 2007.

20 Karen Parker, Forced Displacement in Northern Uganda, United Nations Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, .

21 Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Press, 1999.

22 Private interviews, eyewitnesses, October 2007.

23 See: Tullow, Hardman and Heritage Oil concessions maps: .

24 keith harmon snow & Georgianne Nienaber, “Are USAID Gorilla Conservation Funds Being Used for Covert Operations in Central Africa?” Z Magazine Online (ZNET), September 19, 2007.

25 Angelo Izama, “How badly did Libya want the Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline deal?” Alexander’s Gas and Oil Connections, Vol. 11, Issue 12, November 24, 2006.

26 Ralph G. Kershaw, “Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Justice According to Washington,” Covert Action Quarterly, No. 74, Fall 2002.

27 Jeevan Vasagar, “Uganda hires PR agency to buff up its image,” The Guardian, May 21, 2005.

28 Private interview, Eastern Congo, March 2007.

29 See: .

30 “Are there Internally Displaced Persons in Rwanda?” ReliefWeb, July 2003, .

31 The Rwandan Patriotic Army was renamed the Rwanda Defense Forces (circa 2000?).

32 “Uganda: Kampala-Kigali Oil Pipeline Estimated at $ 193.6 Million,” 16 October 2007, Rwanda News Agency, .

33 Laton McCartney, Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story, Simon & Schuster, 1988.

34 SAIC information is taken from their Annual Reports, Proxy Statements, and web site.

35 Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Press, 1999: 358.

36 Keith Harmon Snow and Georgianne Nienaber: “Gorillas ‘Executed’ Stories front for Privatization and Militarization of Congo Parks, Truth of Depopulation Ignored,” ZNET, August 3, 2007; and “King Kong: The Map, The Mad Scientist, and the Mayor,” .

37 “Rwanda’s Karisimbi Antenna to Cost USD 2.3 Million,” New Times (Rwanda), 2007.

38 David Barouski, “Laurent Nkundabatware, His Rwandan Allies and the Ex-ANC Mutiny: Chronic Barriers to Lasting Peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo,” ZNET, February 2007.

39 “Rwanda documentary to open US Black gala,” Rwanda Cinema Center, January 2007, .

40 “Rwanda documentary to open US Black gala,” Rwanda Cinema Center, January 2007, .

41 Mathew Russel Lee, “At UN, Darfur No-Bid Contract Spun by UK, Chad and Somalia Preemptively Bid Out,” Inner City Press, October 24, 2007, .

42 Mathew Russel Lee, “At UN, Darfur No-Bid Contract Spun by UK, Chad and Somalia Preemptively Bid Out,” Inner City Press, October 24, 2007, .

43 See, e.g., Wayne Madsen, “The CIA's Counter-Proliferation Division (CPD) and British intelligence have evidence that then-Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney lost three nuclear weapons in 1991,” Madsen Report, May 2, 2007; Alexander Cockburn, “Broken Arrows and Iran,” Counterpunch, August 3, 2005.

44 Michael Maren, The Road To Hell: The Ravaging Affects of Foreign Aid and International Charity, 1996.

45 In “The Kabul-ki Dance” (The Atlantic Monthly, November, 2002), a highly sexualized feature, Black Hawk Down author Mark Bowden canonizes the “astonishing precision of modern American weapons” used in Afghanistan (Somalia, Iraq) and the “extraordinarily brave stealth operators” who deliver them. This includes “sleek and cool” weapons of death-and-destruction, and the “coming of age of UAVs”—unmanned aerospace vehicles—armed with cameras and missiles—“drones like the Predator (RQ-1), which made a name for itself for the first time in this conflict”—which, in Bowden’s reading of war, eliminated the propensity for “death-and-destruction” that characterized the anachronistic wars of bygone eras. Indeed, he eulogized, “War was never like this before—you aren’t supposed to enjoy yourself while killing people.”

46 Peter Huck, “Hollywood Goes to War,” The, September 16, 2002, .

47 Peter Huck, “Hollywood Goes to War,” The, September 16, 2002, .

48 “Somalia, US Firm Sign Deal to Guard Coastline,” Xinhuanet, November 25, 2005, ; “US firm to fight Somali pirates,” BBC, November 25, 2005.

49 Antony Barnett & Patrick Smith, “US Accused of Covert Operations in Somalia,” Observer, Sept. 10, 2006.

50 Africa Confidential, September 2006.

51 Pauline Jelenek, “U.S. special forces in Somalia,” Associated Press, November 1, 2007.

52 Stephanie McCrummen, “U.S. Warship Fires Missiles at Fighters in Somalia,” Washington Post, June 3, 2007.

53 “HMS Bulwark welcomed home after Lebanon operations,” defense news, 15 August 2006.

54 “U.S. Gunships Battle Pirates Who Seized Ships Off Somalia, Mogadishu,” Fox News, October 30, 2007, .

54a Golden Spear Symposium Program Highlights, CENTCOM and EUCOM, August 14-17, 2005, .

55 keith harmon snow, “State Terror Against Indigenous People in Ethiopia: Another Secret War for Oil,” World War Four Report, April 2004.

55a “American and French sailors team up to train,” CJTF-HOA Public Affairs, November 5, 2007, .

55b “Small footprint made in Yemen by female servicemembers,” CJTF-HOA Public Affairs, November 4, 2007, .

55c “CENTAF band, Marines entertain Damerjog villagers,” CJTF-HOA Public Affairs, .

56 See: keith harmon snow, Today is the Day of Killing Anuaks, Genocide Watch and Survivor’s Rights International Report, February 25, 2004.

57 Mark Fineman, “The Oil Factor in Somalia,” Los Angeles Times, January 18, 1993.

58 See: Ituri: Covered in Blood (part VII), Human Rights Watch, July 2003, .

59 Xan Rice, “US military 'used Ethiopian base' to attack Somali militants,” Guardian Unlimited, February 23, 2007.

60 Livelihoods and Vulnerabilities Study, Gambella Region of Ethiopia, UNICEF report, December 13, 2006.

61 Burundi: Troops Ready for Deployment in Somalia,”, October 5, 2007.

62 Waiving Prohibition on United States Military Assistance with Respect to Burundi, Guyana, and Liberia, Presidential Determination No. 2005–08 of November 29, 2004, The White House.

63 “Uganda: American Advisors Being Deployed,” Indian Ocean Newsletter, No. 1209, March 3, 2007.

64 Robert Kaplan, “America’s African Rifles,” Atlantic Monthly, April 2005; Dulue Mbachu, “Africa’s Unfolding Desert War,” ISN Security Watch, July 11, 2007.

65 See, e.g.: Mouvement des Nigeriens Pour la Justice: ; James Finch, “Uranium Mining in Niger at Risk,” The Conservative Voice, July 20, 2007; “Niger's Uranium and Oil Sector Threatened by Rebels” July 9, 2007; “Uranium prices fall again, conflict in Niger,” The Conservative Voice, July 9, 2007; “Niger Rebels Pressure Uranium Miners,” Reuters, July 5, 2007; “Niger rebels attack power plant in uranium area,” Reuters, June 27, 2007.

66 Bill Blankenship, “Ex-senator speaks out: Kassebaum-Baker touches on politics of Sudan, Iraq,” The Capital-Journal, October 16, 2006.

67 See: DARFUR ACTION NOW, Partnership for a Secure America, .

68 Johann Hari, “Inside France’s Secret War,” The Independent, October 5, 2007.


70 Abu Iskandar as-Sudani, “Darfur: The New American French Protectorate,” translated by Muhammad Abu Nasr from Al-Hadaf, Damascus, No.1365, May 2005, pp. 22-25 ; see also : keith harmon snow, “Oil in Darfur? Covert Ops in Somalia ? The New, Old Humanitarian Warfare in Africa,” Global Research, February 2007.

71 See: “Close intelligence relations between Israel and Ethiopia, Eritrea,” June 26, 1998, ; “Israel to acquire two more German Submarines,” IMRA Newsletter, December 22, 2004, ; Muhammed Salahuddin, “How Israel Casts Its Dark Shadow Over Horn of Africa,” Arab News, August 31, 2006.

72 Muhammed Salahuddin, “How Israel Casts Its Dark Shadow Over Horn of Africa,” Arab News, August 31, 2006.

72a Foreign reports revealed that there were facilities on the Islands for supplying Israeli submarines operating in the Red Sea. The newsletter also said there was an Israeli presence on Hanish Island. Africa Research Bulletin, Vol. 35, Issue 6, p. 13131-13166, June 1-30, 1998.

72b Private communication, November 12, 2007.

72c Private communication, November 12, 2007.

72d “African Port May Become U.S. Base,” Eritrean News Wire, November 19, 2002, ; “CJTF-HOA Commander hosts Eritrean President,” Marine Corps News, April 2, 2003.

73 Foreign reports revealed that there were facilities on the Islands for supplying Israeli submarines operating in the Red Sea. The newsletter also said there was an Israeli presence on Hanish Island. Africa Research Bulletin, Vol. 35, Issue 6, p. 13131-13166, June 1-30, 1998.

74 keith harmon snow and Rick Hines, “Blood Diamond: Doublethink and Deception Over Those Worthless Little Rocks of Desire,” Z Magazine, June & July 2007.

75 Eric Reeves, “Darfur’s Bitter Ironies,” Guardian Online, October 4, 2007.

76 See: keith harmon snow, “Oil in Darfur? Covert Ops in Somalia? The New, Old Humanitarian Warfare in Africa,” Global Research, February 2007, and revised for allthingspass, April 2007, .

77 “Hezbollah is Using Christian Villages to Shield its Military Operations in Violation of International Law,” Christian Solidarity International, 1 August 2006, < >.

78 See: keith harmon snow, “Oil in Darfur? Covert Ops in Somalia? The New, Old Humanitarian Warfare in Africa,” Global Research, February 2007, and revised for allthingspass, April 2007, .

79 See keith harmon snow, Oil in Darfur? Covert Ops in Somalia? The New Old Humanitarian Warfare in Africa, and, e.g. “SPLA Offensive Overwhelms Muslim Forces,” excerpted from Frontline Fellowship News, 197, Edition 2, .

80 Private communication, October 2007. See also, e.g.: “Gaddafi, the Peacemaker in Chad and Darfur,” .

81 Stephanie Hancock, “Most Chad Case Children Not Orphans,” Reuters, November 1, 2007.

82 “CHAD: French NGO Accused of Trafficking Children,” IRIN News, October 26, 2007, ; “Chad: Government Accused of Hypocrisy in Zoe’s Ark Affair,” IRIN News, November 8, 2007, ; Guillemette Faure, “Trafic d'enfants ou pieds nickelés de l'humanitaire?,” October 26, 2007, , Anne Else, “Untangling the Zoe’s Ark Affair,” Anne Else’s Letter from Elsewhere, November 6, 2007, .

83 Stephanie Hancock, “Most Chad Case Children Not Orphans,” Reuters, November 1, 2007.

84 IRIN, Sudan: Making humanitarian work safer, ReliefWeb, May 31, 2007, .

85 Jim Fisher-Thompson, “Important Role Seen for Private Firms in_African Peacekeeping,” Global Policy Forum, October 15, 2004.

86 Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999, Mellen Press, 1999.

87 Doug Brooks, Supporting the MONUC Mandate with Private Services in the Democratic Republic of Congo, IPOA Concept Paper, January 2003, .

88 See: Doug Brooks, Support Operation to the Darfur Region of Sudan, IPOA Concept Paper, July 2004, .

89 ICI of Oregon web site, .

90 See: Fred Schreier and Marina Caparini, Privatising Security: Law, Practice and Governance of Private Military and Security Companies, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), Occasional Paper No. 6, March 2005.

91 Charles Tilly, “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime,” In Bringing the State Back In, Peter Evans et al.

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